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Columbia ollniticm'tp 


Bequest of 

Frederic Bancroft 


fuejii -Z, /'?o S'. 

-^Xi7 ^ f^ 

I 8 I 3—1 89 3 











— 1862 







17 67- 

— 1907 







VMHO for nearly fifty years shared with me 
the labor, trials and privations of pioneer 
missionary life; whose cheery presence made 
the humble log cabin on the western frontier 
the happiest of homes, and whose sunny, hope- 
ful disposition found for every cloud a silver 
lining-, these recollections are affectionately in- 



Chapter I. 
Birth. Earl3' Life. Education. Ordination to the Min- 
istry, and marriage. 

Chaiter II. 
Appointment as a Missionarj', and the journey, New 
York to Iowa, in 1842. 

Chapter III. 
Pioneer life on the Western Frontier. The log- cabin 
home near Maquoketa. Rafting on the Maquoketa river, 
and a cross country trip to Iowa City. 

Chapter IV. 
Frontier meeting places. A primitive journey to Dav- 
enport in a road cart. The Davenport Association and the 
Churches composing it. 

Chapter V. 
Removal to Davenport in fall of 1842. Revival meetings 
at Rock Island. Sketch of Judge John F. Dillon. 

Chapter VI. 
Location at LeClaire. An eventful trip to Mt. Pleasant. 
Indians and prairie fires. Buffalo Bill. The brick house 
on the prairie of Scott county. 

Chapter VII. 
Relocation at Maquoketa in fall of 1847. The home there 
and the Maquoketa Academy. Failing health. 

Chapter VIII, 
Death by drowning of oldest son, and of Nelson Walker, 
a nephew. The return to New York in May, 1851. Hol- 
land Patent, Russia, Norwa}'. 

Chapter IX. 
Fenner, Madison county. Gaines and Murray, Orleans 

count}', and the return to Iowa in July, 1857. Looking up 
a location in northern Iowa, and settling- at Vernon 
Springs in September. 

Chapter X. 

Early life at Vernon. Organization of the Church and 
sketches of neighbors. 

Chapter XI. 

The war of the Rebellion. Raid of Sioux Indians in fall 
of 1862. McGregor Western Railway. Removal to 
Thompson, Carroll county, Illinois. Appointment and 
service as Chaplain in the army. 

Chapter XII. 

Location at Lime Springs, Howard county, in 1870. 
Death by accident of son George L. Brown, September 1, 
1871. Elected to State Legislature. An argument for 
reform of jury system. 

Chapter XIII. 

Death of Mrs. Brown at Lime Springs, June 12, 1887. 
Breaking up of the home and life with sons. Death at 
Ottumwa, July 23, 1901. Sketches of wife and children. 

Chapter XIV. 
Address at LeClaire, July 4, 1845. 

Chapter XV. 
Temperance address at Cresco, January 3, 1875. 

Chapter XVI. 
Historical address at Clinton, Iowa, September 22, 1892. 

Chapter XVII. 

Extract from Autobiography of Rev. Phillip Perry 
Brown, with sketches of his children. 

Chapter XVIII. 
Family records. 


Rev. atid Mrs. Charles E. Brown Frontispiece 

Baptist Parsonafjfo, Norway, Herkimer \ 

County, New York ' '. Following 

I Page 10 

Baptist Church, Norway I 

Baptist Church, Russia, New York 54 

Rev. and Mrs. Charles E. Brown and 

children, George and Will, July, 1857 60 

Iowa River at L<ime Springs, Iowa 1 

Iowa River on C. C. Hewitt's farm near \ 

lyime Springs J 

Pasture on farm pre-empted by C. C. 1 

Hewitt in 1S55 "' "2 

Scene on C. C. Hewitt farm j 


Esq. M M. Marsh ) 

Mrs. C. C. Hewitt. Mrs. W. C. Brown. . . ! 74 

Mrs. Frank E. Pierce ] 

Master William Brown Pierce J 

The old Home; Stone house built at Ver- 1 

non Springs in 1858 )- 

School House and old Home, Vernon j 


School house at Vernon Springs 86 


Home of Father Brown in Ottumwa, 1 Following- 

Iowa, where he died 

I^ast home in Lime Springs, of Father j 

and Mother Brown 

Home of C. C. Hewitt, in Lime Springs, !' 

where W. C. Brown and Ella Hewitt I 

were married in June, 1874 ' 

Remodeled Home in Lime Springs, of 

Father and Mother Brown 1 



Hill's Mill on Iowa River near Lime 

Monument on Family lot in Cemetery at 
Lime Springs, Iowa 

Family burial lot of Stephen W. Brown 
at Little Falls, Herkimer County, New 





Rev. George W. Fall 

Miss Adeline P. Fall, August, 1866 

Mrs. Charles P. Brown, 1871 

Charles P. Brown, 1863 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Brown, 1892.... 

and Edith, 1885 

Louise, Frances, Edith and Ben, children 

of Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Lester M. Linton 


James D. Brown 

Mrs. James D. Brown 

George E Brown and wife.. 
Miss Vinnie France* Brown 
Frank Logan Brown 


William C. Brown 

Mrs. William C. Brown 

Miss Marg-aret Heddeiis Brown. 


Margaret and Bertha 

Dr. Frank E. Pierce 

Mrs. Frank EJ. Pierce 

William Brown Pierce 


Dr. Kellogg Speed 

Mrs. Kellogg Speed 



Rev. Phillip Perry Brown 

Betsy Dickey, Mrs. Phillip Perry Brown 

Rev. William Brown 

Phillip Perry Brown, Jr 

A. J. Brown 

Wilbur M . Brown 



Sa in t Jos eph , Mis s o it ri, 
February 2p'd, iSgj, 

At the request of my children, I zindertake 
a7i Aiitobiog-raphy, and commence it on this, 
my eig^htieth birthday. 

Imperfectly kept diaries will furnish sojne 
data, but recollections must coyne principally 
from memory^ s store. 

- Chapter I. 

I was born in Augusta, Oneida County, 
New York, February 23, 1813. My father, 
Phillip Perry Brown, was born m Bennington, 
Vermont, September 17, 1790, and died in 
Madison, Madison County, New York, Sep- 
tember 23, 1876. 

He was a Baptist minister and was for 
more than fifty years a zealous, faithful and 
successful worker in his calling — as pastor of 
Baptist Churches in central New York. 

His mother, Anna Perry Brown, was of 
the family of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, 
of Revolutionary fame; though not closely re- 

My mother, Betsy Dickey, was born in 
Wethersfield, Vermont, October 23, 1788, and 
died in Hamilton, New York, April 2nd, 1862. 

Her father was a Scotch Irishman, who 
came from Londonderry, North Ireland to 
Londonderry, New Hampshire, before the 
revolutionary war. She was an exemplary 
Christian woman and a devoted, loving wife 
and mother. • 

I was the second of a family of nine chil- 
dren, six sons and three daughters, of whom 


only three are now living*, myself, a brother 
and sister. 

Before my recollection my parents moved 
from Aug-usta to Smithiield, in Madison 

This was a new and heavily timbered coun- 
try, and here, amid the privations and hard- 
ships of pioneer life with limited means, we 
lived until my eig-hteenth year. 

The maple forest furnished us with suo-ar 
and syrup. Wheat flour was something of a 
luxury. Wild game from the timber and trout 
from the streams supplied meat for the table. 

Spelling- schools, apple paring's, coasting, 
and the usual g-ames of a pioneer farming- com- 
munity were our youthful sports. 

The family was healthy and the services 
of the neighborhood doctor were very seldom 

In the fall of 1829, my father became pastor 
of the Baptist Church at Augusta. 

During the summer and fall of 1831 I worked 
for Danforth Armour on his farm, at the sum- 
mit of what was known as the "Mile Hill" — 
the grade beginning at Leland's Tavern, the 
five chimney house. The Lelands' became in 
time wealthy and well known keepers of 
famous hotels. Near the top of the Mile Hill 
the road forked, the main road running- south- 
west and the other due west. 

The Armour farm la}^ along- the south side 
of the west road, west of the Peterboro turn- 
pike. The house, one and a half-story frame, 
unpainted, contained three small rooms below 
and a bed room and store room above. 

The larg-e, old-fashioned chimney and fire 
place was in one end with a ladder alongside 
leading- to the room above. 

The family consisted of the parents, two 
little boys, Simeon and Watson in dresses, 
and a little girl baby in the mother's arms. 
The following- year a third boy was born, 
who was named Phillip. 

The home, though humble, was a very happy 

Danforth Armour's parents came from 
New England to New York at an early day. 
New York at that time was "out west." Many 
years later Danforth returned to Connecticut 
to find a helpmate — Miss Julia A. Brooks, 
daughter of a well to do Yankee farmer. 

I feel that the incidents above related are 
worthy of special notice when I realize the 
good influence exerted in the west by the 
three sons of Danforth Armour during the 
past twenty-five years. 

Phillip D. Armour, Simeon B. Armour and 
Allison W. Armour have honored the name 
they bear, the place that gave them birth. 


and the sturdy New En<»-land stock from which 
they spruno*. 

I was paid thirty-two dollars in cash for my 
four months* woriv on the Armour farm. 
Within a week from the time I o;ot the money, 
I met an acquaintance who knew of its receipt 
and wanted to borrow just that amount. He 
plead so earnestly and made such fair promises 
to repay soon that I let him have it, and at 
this time the amount is still due and unpaid, 
principal and interest. 

Late in the fall of 1831 I w^ent to Augfusta 
to learn the tanning-, currN^ng- and shoemaking- 
business with Hazard Wilbur, a deacon of my 
father's church. 

At a revival meeting* in September 1832, I 
with many others, became a Christian, and 
was baptized by my father. Soon after I 
became impressed with the conviction that it 
was my duty to preach the gospel, and a few 
weeks later I began at the Hamilton Literary 
and Theological Seminary a course of study 
to prepare for the ministry. 

In the spring- of 1833, Professor Daniel 
Hascall opened at Florence, Oneida County, a 
manual labor school, which I entered. During- 
school term — out of school hours, my room 
mate joined me in cutting down trees and 
chopping- them into logs, which during- vaca- 
tion w^e hauled with a yoke of cattle, hired for 


the purpose, and the land cleared in this way, 
helped to defray part of the cost of our educa- 

I tauo-ht school two winters, tliat of 1834-5, 
at Pittston, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, 
at the head of the Wyoming- Valley. 

Across the Susquehanna River in sig^ht of 
Pittston, occurred the Wyoming- massacre of 
the settlers by British Tories and Indians in 
July 1778. One of the little g'irl captives 
carried away by the Indians was Francis 
Slocum, and among my pupils was a young 
lady who was her niece. Pifty-seven years 
passed and no intelligence had ever been re- 
ceived of the captives. Some years after this 
she was found in Indiana with the remnant of 
a tribe, the wife of an Indian, and mother of 
g-rown children. A brother and sister from 
Pennsylvania visited the tribe and endeavored 
to induce her to return and spend the remain- 
der of her life with them; but she refused, 
prefering to stay with her children. 

In March 1838, I held a revival meeting- in 
Deacon Holdrege's school house in the town 
of Frankfort, Herkimer County, a few miles 
west of Frankfort village. Father Harvey, a 
licensed preacher 104 years old, was a good 
helper at these meetings. His wife by sec- 
ond marriage, was so much younger than him- 
self, her family opposed the marriage for the 


reason that she would soon have a helpless old 
man to care for. But she became old and 
feeble, and Father Harvey, much smarter and 
more active, had her to care for, which he did 
with the utmost love and tenderness. 

As in his young-er days, the first thing- on 
rising- in the pulpit was to take off his coat. I 
love to recall those school house revivals with 
Father Harvey in his chair in front of the 
desk and his tender heart-moving" voice in 
prayer and exhortation. 

During- April and May 1838, in the absence 
of Elder Thomas Houston, the pastor, I 
preached m the Baptist Church at Frankfort. 
At this time my father, then pastor of the 
Litchfield Church, was engag-ed in a revival at 
Little Falls. The meeting-s were interesting 
and powerful, and I went down to witness the 
display of God's saving* mercy and help in the 
g-ood work. 

From Frankfort to Little Falls, twelve 
miles, w^as my first ride on a railroad. The 
rails were of wood, with strap iron about the 
width and thickness of a wag-on tire spiked 
on. The coaches contained two compartments 
with cross seats, passengers on one seat 
riding backwards. The conductor while col- 
lecting tickets, walked on a plank outside 
holding onto a hand rail under the eaves of the 

Arriving- at Little Falls I went directly to 
the church where services were beingf held. 
After church I was invited to the home of 
Stephen W. Brown, then Sheriff of Herkimer 
County, a leading- merchant and business 
man, with the understanding- that I would be 
entertained there during my stay. Meeting- 
with a very cordial reception, I soon felt at 
home with Mr. Brown's family, which con- 
sisted of himself and wife, and Georg-e D. 
and Frances Lyon, brother and sister of Mrs. 
Brown. Thoug-h of the same name, we were 
not related, and this was my first visit to 
Little Falls. 

Mr. George Lyon had for some time been a 
member of the Baptist Church, and his sister 
Frances, whom I met there for the first time, 
and who became in the fall following- my loved 
and honored companion in the journey of life; 
was a very bright and interesting- convert of 
the revival then in prog-ress. I have always 
felt that this meeting- and its results was 
kindly directed by an over-ruling- and all-wise 

Rev. J. W. Olmsted, long- the able and influ- 
ential editor of the Watchman of Boston, 
was the beloved pastor of the Little Falls 
Baptist Church at this time. 

With a class of about twenty-five, I finished 
the course at Hamilton, July 15th, 1838 and 


on the 20th of September at Litchfield where 
my father was pastor, I was re^rularly or- 
dained to the work of preaching- the gfospel. 

On September 26th in the Baptist Church 
at Little Falls, Rev. Augustus Beach officia- 
tinof, I was married to Prances Lyon. 

Throug-h the influence of my brother Will- 
iam, then pastor of the Baptist Church at 
Newport, I had been invited to visit the 
church at Norway, Herkimer County, which 
resulted in a call to the pastorate. 

Earh^ in November w^e began housekeeping- 
in the Norway parsonage, with the untried re- 
sponsibility of pastoral work on a salary of 
$275.00 a year and the use of the parsonage. 

Through the very kind and generous assist- 
ance of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen W. Brown we 
had a plain but sufficient outfit for house- 

Chapter II. 

For reasons that at the time seemed suf- 
ficient, we remained but eig-hteen months in 

Two of the deacons objected to the pastor 
using- the same text for morning* and after- 
noon services presenting- different branches 
of the subject, the object being- to avoid long- 

Not knowing- what the outcome of their 
opposition mig-ht be, I quietly resig-ned, leav- 
ing- the church in peace and harmony. 

Precious revival influences were enjoyed 
during- our stay, twenty-nine being- baptized, 
but not all into the Norway church. 

On July 30, 1839, at the Norway parsonag-e, 
our first child was born, a little boy, who 
was named Benjamin Perry. 

Early in March 1839, I went by appoint- 
ment to visit the church in Morehouseville, 
Hamilton County, twenty miles north of Nor- 
way, in the primeval forest then known as the 
Great North Woods, now the Adirondack 

I found there a few worthy members and 



at once l)e<^an revival meetinj^s in the school 

Oh, the precious seasons there enjoyed. 
''How sweet their memory still." 

On March 24th, a beautiful bricrht sunny 
dav, the snow still deep in the wilderness — 
the ice bein^ cut away in the west Canada 
creek — I baptized nine in its clear waters. 
In May followincr I visited the place a<ifain and 
baptized two more. 

I always enjoyed missionary work in school 
houses and distant neig-hborhoods of my pas- 
toral fields. 

During- the first pastorate at Norway, I 
visited a new settlement at the head of Pizeco 
Lake, about twenty miles beyond Morehouse- 
ville, in the almost pathless wilderness. 

Leaving" Norway, our next field of labor 
beginning- in April 1840, w^as in the town of 
Warren, in the southern part of Herkimer 
County. Little could be accomplished in re- 
lig-ious work the first year owing- to the excit- 
ing- and all-absorbing- ''Log- Cabin, Hard 
Cider, Tippecayioe and Tyler too'' Presiden- 
tial campaign, resulting- in the election of 
Harrison and Tyler. But the following- year 
a g-ood deg-ree of interest was manifested and 
baptism and additions to the church member- 
ship occurred frequently. 

A gfrownng- interest in and love for pioneer 


missionary work directed our thoug-hts to 
some new field of labor in the distant West. 

At Warren October 30th, 1840, our second 
child was born, a son, who was named Charles 

During- this month our wish for missionary 
work in the West was laid before the New 
York State Missionary Convention at its 
annual meeting- then in session at Whitesboro. 

The application said nothing about salary . 
or any special location, excepting- a prefer- 
ence expressed for lotva. The request was 
favorably endorsed by the convention and an 
appointment by the American Baptist Home 
Missionary Society recommended. 

This appointment came in due time, desig- 
nating the forks of the Maquoketa river in 
Jackson County, Iowa, as the field of labor, 
with an allowance of one hundred dollars a 
year from the board and seventy-five dollars 
for traveling expenses to the field. 

Our family then consisted of myself, wife 
and the two little boys, Benjaminand Charles. 
As household goods could not be economically 
shipped so far we sold everything- except 
clothing-, bedding, a common table and stand 
which could be conveniently packed, and a 
rocking chair, taken for the comfort and con- 
venience of the mother in caring for the little 
ones on the journey. 


We boug-ht a small cook stove, which was 
taken down, packed in straw and boxed for 
shipment. All told our household effects 
weighed about 1600 pounds. 

On Monday May 2nd, 1842, we left Utica on 
a passeng-er packet known as a Line boat on 
the Erie canal, bound for Buffalo en route to 
Iowa territory. 

These boats w^ere provided with a comfort- 
able cabin w^th berths for passen^rers in the 
bow, kitchen and dining- cabin at the stern 
and space amidships for freig^ht and bag-gag-e. 
With g-ood company, clean wholesome food, a 
sober and accommodating- master and crew, 
the two hundred mile trip from Utica to Buf- 
falo was comfortable and pleasant. The fare, 
two cents per mile, which included berth and 
board with no charg-e for young- children, was 
very reasonable. 

Arriving- at Tonawanda, twelve miles from 
Buffalo, at midnig-ht Saturday, we lay by 
until the next midnig-ht, as the boat did not 
run on the Sabbath. We reached Buffalo at 
daylig-ht Monday May 9th, and the family 
and g-oods were transferred to the Lake 
•steamer, "Great Western," Captain Walker 
commanding-, which was due to leave that 
evening- for Chicag-o. 

The shades of nig-ht were falling- when the 
great steamer with nearly four hundred pas- 


seng-ers bound mostly for Illinois, Iowa and 
Wisconsin, put out into the lake for Chicago. 
Very few had ever been on the water, and 
ominous clouds were looming- up in the west. 

The cabin passeng-ers g-athered on the prom- 
enade deck, some looking- back on the lig-hts 
of the city toward the homes and loved ones 
they were leaving-; some at the dark waters of 
the lake, and some anxiously at the threaten- 
ing- clouds, many with tearful eyes. 

It was one of the most solemn and intensely 
interesting- scenes we ever witnessed and one 
we will never forg-et. 

We retired to our state room but could not 
sleep The storm broke upon us with g-reat 
fury in the nig-ht, but our noble steamer met 
and faced it bravely, and broug-ht us safely 
into the harbor at Cleveland, which was the 
first landing- place. 

The effect of the nig-ht's storm on the 
stomachs of the passeng-ers was manifest at 
breakfast, many being- absent from the table. 

We lay at Cleveland a few hours waiting- for 
the storm to pass. 

Excepting- a similar experience on Lake 
Huron, compelling- us to lay by for four hours 
at Presque Isle, we had pleasant sailing- to 
Chicag-o, where we arrived Saturday after- 
noon and put up at a small two-story hotel 
called the New York House. 


In the eveninj^- we attended meeting in the 
Baptist Church, located on the lot where the 
Chamber of Commerce now stands, and heard 
a sermon bv Rev. Thomas Powell. The 
church was a frame building- boarded "up and 
down" and battened, w^ithout ceilin<^, exposing- 
collar beams, rafters and roof boards. 

The Court House w^as near by on a five acre 
lot enclosed with a common fence. It was a 
small brick building, located at the north side 
of the lot. 

The following- letter to a sister in New York 
State, written by Mrs. Brown en route, May 
12th-16th, 1842, is interesting-: 

Thqrsday, Lake St. Clair, 
May 12th, 1842. 

Dear Sister and Brother — 

In accordance with your request, I improve 
the first convenient season for writing- you 
some of the incidents of our journey thus far. 
We are on board the Great Western, the 
most splendid vessel on the lakes. It is a 
lovely morning, the lake is still and we are 
sailing at the rate of twelve miles an hour. 
We are furnished with every comfort and 
convenience that could be obtained in the best 
hotel. Our journey has been pleasant, with 
the exception of some little sea-sickness for 


the first few hours on "Lake Erie. Benny and 
myself have had a pretty thoroug-h emetic. 
Mr. B. and Charley escaped with a little 
nausea of the stomach, and no vomiting-. We 
have been sailing- up the Detroit river this 
morning with Victoria's dominions on our 
right hand, and borders of Michigan on the 
left; passed a British military station; saw a 
number of her Majesty's red-coated gentry. 
Our steamer stopped some time at Detroit. 
We went on shore. I priced articles in a 
number of dry goods establishments, found a 
handsome assortment, and as low as can be 
purchased in New York. We find the tide of 
emigration to the far west has by no means 
subsided. There are between three and four 
hundred passengers on board, and quite a 
large proportion go round to Chicago. The 
children have been less trouble than I antici- 
pated. We left Utica Monday morning in the 
Little Western; Captain Newcomb, a pleas- 
ant man and fine crew; heard no profane 
language; had a good cook and good fare, 
and with the exception of speed found our- 
selves comfortable. 

Called on Mrs. Dr. Grey, found her well. 
Saw Elon Carpenter and his wife, and Mrs. 
Carpenter, Mrs. Grey's mother, likewise her 
sister, Mrs. Beach and two daug-hters. Called 
on Mrs. Lyman, saw her and her boy. Mr. 


Lvnian was not in. Slic li\cs (lirc*ctl\' ()])p()- 
site Dr. Grey in Jordan, (juite a pretlv villa<^e 
on the canal. Had the f^j-ood fortune to find 
Cousin Francis in All)ion, thouLfh we had but 
a short time to visit with him. He was well, 
in o-ood spirits; says he is doino- well, and 
desio-ns visitin<r Little Palls in July (tell 
friend C. we shall want a ofood hatter in our 
cit3\ and I think thev had better come on). 
Cousin Francis seemed very glad to see us, 
and said he would have g-one on with us to 
Buffalo had he not been in the dye kettle. 

We were detained by a break in the canal 
below Rochester, in consequence of w^hich we 
did not reach Buffalo as soon as we expected. 
The boat belonged to the six-day line, and lay 
up at Tonawanda, a villag-e twelve miles be- 
low^ Buffalo, and spent the Sabbath. A Meth- 
odist minister preached in the morning-, and 
Mr B. in the afternoon. We were invited to 
tea at the public house kept by a Mr. Brig-gs, 
w^hose wife is a Baptist On the whole, spent 
the day quite pleasantly. We were detained 
in Buffalo until Tuesday, seven in the evening- 
waiting- for the sailing of the vessel. 

Monday Morning, Chicag-o, 
May 16th, 1842- 

We arrived in this city yesterday afternoon 
safe and sound. Our passage from Buffalo, 


tog-ether with freig-ht, cost us forty-eig-ht dol- 
lars; from Little Falls to Buffalo twenty- 

We had one day of roug-h weather on Lake 
Huron but none of us were sea sick. I think 
had not my stomach been foul I should have 
escaped altog-ether. On the w^hole w^e have 
had a pleasant journey; are much pleased with 
the appearance of the western country so far. 
Milwaukee, Racine and Southport on the Wis- 
consin shore are pleasant villag-es. We passed 
Mackinaw in the nig-ht, reg'retted it very 
much, as it is said to be a very interesting 

We are at the New York House in Chicag-o. 
There were eig-hty people at breakfast; very 
g-ood accommodations; have plenty of radishes, 
onions, lettuce, etc, 

Mr. B is making- arrang-ements for prose- 
cuting- our journey to Iowa. The weather is 
fine and the roads g-ood, and we hope to g-et 
along- without any difficulty. 

Benny talks about Aunt Brown and baby 
Georg-e, Pred, Aunt Mary and all the friends 
he has left behind. I cannot realize the dis- 
tance that separates us. It seems to be anni- 
hilated by the facilities for overcoming- it. I 
think to come by railroad from Little Falls to 
Buffalo, and then by the lakes to Chicag-o, 
would make a delig-htful jaunt. Take an 
emetic before you leave. 


We shall hope to see you next season, I 
think the first of June or last of May would be 
about the rij^ht time to leave. 

A very g-enteel family from the city of Phil- 
adelphia are just leaving for the country. 

We shall soon be on the load teamino- oif. 
Remember us affectionately to all friends — 
Chloe, Mrs. Green, the doctor. Dr. Brown, all 
the irood brothers and sisters in the church. 

I just sent to the office hopino- for a letter 
or papers from home, found none. Let us 
hear from you at our home, Nelson has the 

Love agfain to all. 

Yours in haste, 


Mrs. S. W. Brown, Little Falls, ) 
Herkimer County, N. Y. f 

On Monday we found a man from Rockford, 
Illinois, who came in with a lumber wa^^on 
and a load of produce and eno-ag-ed him to take 
us to Savanna, on the Mississippi river. After 
loading- our thino-s, the rocking- chair brougfht 
from New York was fastened on top of one of 
the boxes with a small chair secured along-- 

Seated in the rocker with the young-est 
child in her lap, and the other in the little 
chair by her side Mrs. Brown cheerily said, 


"Now, this is fine," and there was sunshine 
on the load all the way throug-h. 

I took a seat on the box beside the driver 
with our feet on the whiffle-trees, and we 
started on our two hundred mile drive to 
our future home in the territory of Iowa. 

A dry spring- fortunately saved us the 
trouble of pryino- our wag-on out of the mud in 
the streets of Chicag-o. 

We stopped for the first nig-ht about twelve 
miles out on the Elg-in road, and the second at 
a small log* cabin at Pig-eon Woods, sixteen 
miles west of Elg-in, where a hearty appetite 
for supper was demoralized by badly tainted 
ham; and the presence of two loads of stag-e 
coach passeng-ers to be cared for oblig-ed us 
to sleep on the floor. But these incidents 
were minor matters in a journey like this. 

Early next morning-, proceeding- on our way 
we found a satisfactory breakfast at a small 
cabin located where the town of Mareng-o now 
stands. At noon we reached Belvidere, where 
we enjo3'ed a visit with Prof. P. S. Whitman 
who was one of my teachers at Hamilton. 
Here on the public square we saw the stakes 
used to support a rude platform which had 
been the resting- place of the body of an 
Indian chief. The body was g-one but the 
poles and some frag-ments of hisburial dress 


were there, a dismal and orewsome reminder 
of the past. 

That evening- we arrived at the west side 
tavern at Rockford where, to our great disap- 
pointment, our teamster was summoned as a 
witness in a case on trial, delaying- us until 
the following- Monday. But while tarrying* 
we found a g-ood home and pleasant friends in 
the family of the Rev. Solomon Knapp, pastor 
of the Baptist Church at Rockford, for whom 
I preached on Sunday; my first sermon in the 

Monday morning", in g-ood health and spirits, 
with fine weather and roads we continued our 
journey, taking- the Galena stag-e road to 
Twelve Mile Grove, thence turning* directly 
west for the Mississippi. 

About sun down w^e reached Crane's g-rove, 
and as the next stopping- place was eig-hteen 
miles west, here we must put up for the 
nig-ht. Mrs. Crane from Kentucky, middle 
ag-ed and stout, was just coming- from the 
cow yard with a pail of milk. To our inquiry 
if we could stop for the nig'ht she replied, 
"Oh, I reckon, thoug-h I am mig-hty tired. 
The old cow g-ives a rig-ht smart of milk, well 
on to half a bushel." 

That night our teamster overfed his horses 
with gfrain and next morning- found one of 
them dead. We arrang-ed with Mr. Crane to 


take us eig-hteen miles to Cherry grove, where 
we stopped with a Mr. Gardner, Mr. Crane's 
brother-in-law, who next day took us to Savan- 
na on the Mississippi. We here had our first 
view of the mighty river, its volume then being- 
much greater than in later years. That even- 
ing we were ferried across to Charleston, now 
Sabula, and put up for the night at the town 
tavern. In the morning- eng-ag-ed a man and 
team to take us the remaining twenty-five to 
thirty miles to the end of our long journey. 

Owing to rain we were late in starting. 
About noon stopped for dinner at a cabin on 
the west bank of Deep Creek, where we found 
nothing to eat but eggs. Of these they had 
eleven, which were boiled for us. 

The children would not eat them. We did 
not see any other human habitation until night 
had fallen, when the little ones, tired and 
hungry, had long- since cried themselves to 

In the darkness of midnight we reached a 
cabin occupied by Mr. C. W. Doolittle, when 
at that spectral hour, in silence and solitude 
that could be felt, we were at the end of our 
long journey, nearly a thousand miles from 
home and friends in the distant east. The 
Indian had recently left, and his pale faced 
successors were few and far between. 

We had been twenty-four days on the road 


and had lost but little time, havin<»- diligently 
pursued our way from the start. It is one of 
the wonders of a marvelous a^e to realize that 
the distance can now be made in less than 
twentv-foiir hours in luxurious ease and com- 
fort and that this is actually done every day. 
With cordial frontier hospitality which we 
g-ratefully appreciated, Mr. and Mrs. Doolittle 
turned out and welcomed us, prepared supper 
and then g-ave us their bed, while they found 
lodg-ing- for themselves and family in the cabin 
loft. Tired and worn by the long- and tedious 
last day's drive we slept sweetly and soundly, 
four in the bed, myself, wife and two children. 

Chapter III. 

Arriving- in the nig-ht we could see nothing- 
of the near by country, and owing- to a dense 
fog- nothing- was visible next morning-. 

After breakfast, accompanied by Brother 
Doolittle, I called on some neig-hboring fami- 
lies two miles to the southwest. 

Upon inquiry I found to my surprise that 
there was no church or organized Baptist 
society. The settlement was very new, with 
a few Baptist families widely scattered. This 
and the fog-, and the fact that aside from the 
$100 per year from the home missionary board, 
our living- was to come from our field of labor 
was rather discouraging- and made me feel a 
little blue. 

But during our walk a breeze came up and 
carried away the fog. The clouds lifted and 
the sun came out, revealing a most beautiful 
prairie country to the south, with a grand body 
of Moquaketa timber to the north for a back- 
ground. My blues went with the fog; hope, 
couragfe and cheer came with the sunshine and 
clear sky. But how would my dear wife feel, 
for I knew, and she knew, that the privation 



and hardship of a new country would fall most 
heavily on the wife and mother in the little log* 
cabin home. 

Doubt was soon removed, for on my return 
she met me near the house with a bright and 
cheerful face saying-, "Charles, we came to 
Iowa to do good and we will stay and trust in 
the Lord." 

Oh, how welcome was that g-reeting. We 
had faith in God's promise: "Trust in the 
Lord and do good; so shalt thou dwell in the 
land, and verily thou shalt be fed." 

We arrived at the cabin of Brother Doolittle 
at midnight on Thursday, May 26, 1842. The 
Baptist families and settlers g-enerally g-aveus 
a very cordial welcome. 

A meeting- was to be held at Iowa City June 
3rd to org-anize a Territorial Missionary Con- 
vention, and I desired to attend. Iowa City 
was about a hundred miles to the southw^est 
and there w^as no roads to mention and very 
few settlers on the route. 

Bro. Doolittle's family was larg-e and we 
found a temporary home with Bro. Levi 
Decker. Sister Decker very kindly proposed 
•to care for our little ones and allow Mrs. 
Brown to g-o with me to Iowa City, an arrang-e- 
ment we were g-lad to make. Procuring a 
horse and lig-ht wagon of Brother Doolittle, 
we set out on the morning- of June 1st, taking- 


a trail that led to what was known as Ber- 
g-oon's ford across the Wasepinecon river 
some twenty-five miles away. We soon lost 
the dim uncertain trail, but having- a good 
general idea of the direction did not miss our 
way. The weather was fine, the prairies car- 
peted with wild flowers, and the trip novel 
and wonderfully interesting-. The broad ex- 
panse of rolling prairies extending- in every 
direction as far as the eye could reach, with 
now and then a beautiful grove to relieve the 
monotony, was a g-reat change from the hills, 
valleys and heavy timber of our central New 
York home. 

Nearing the Wapsy settlement we came 
onto a prairie creek, narrow and deep with 
abrupt banks. How to cross was a prob- 
lem. But we were nearly twenty miles on 
our road and would not turn back. Helping 
Mrs. Brown across with our bag-g-ag-e I started 
far enough away from the creek to g-et the 
horse on a smart trot, and as he came to the 
bank gave him a sharp blow with the whip at 
the same time jumping- out. Over he went, 
scattering- thing's, but nothing- was broken or 
damaged. We stopped for dinner at the little 
cabin of a settler not far beyond the creek. 
An early start and the long- June day's drive 
broug-ht us to Tipton, the county seat of 
Cedar Countv, for the night. We found there 


a log" cabin hotel and a loo- court house. Leav- 
ino- appointments for preachin<^- at Tipton and 
the Wapsy crossino- settlement on our return 
trip, and o-etting- an early start and niai<in«-a 
long- drive, we reached Iowa City on the even- 
ing of the second day. 

At this time there were no railroads west 
of the State of New York. The western 
boundary of lands to which the Indian title 
had been extinguished by treaty and purchase 
and which were open to settlement, was only 
eighteen miles from Iowa City. The counties 
bordering on this west line were Van Buren, 
Jefferson, Washington, Johnson, Linn, Buch- 
anan, Fayette and Clayton. 

It was ofood to meet the brethren and sis- 
ters from different and distant parts of the 
territory. Business was soon and easily at- 
tended to, and the last three days were occu- 
pied with preaching and devotional services. 
Returning we filled the Tipton appointment 
Monday, and at the Wapsy settlement the next 
day, arriving home that night. 

Our next important temporal affair was to 
select a location and build a log house. Tim- 
ber being plenty and saw mills scarce, houses 
were generally of logs. 

Becoming acquainted with the people at 
Wright's Corners, two and one-half miles 
south of the present site of Maquoketa, we 


decided to locate there. Our neig-hbors were, 
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Wrig-ht, Alfred Wrig-ht, 
Levi Decker, John Rig-g-s, David Bentley and 
others, and better people we need not ask for. 
They very g-enerously turned out with teams 
and axes and cut and hauled log's from a g^rove 
a few miles west for a cabin 12 x 18 feet. 
The log's were hewn on two sides, and in a 
fortnig-ht the body of the house was up. Some 
sawed lumber was necessary, and Mr. John 
Rig-g-s joining- me, we went to a saw mill at 
Canton, eig-hteen miles above, on the Maquo- 
keta river. Going- on foot to Canton we 
boug-ht the lumber, made a raft of it and 
started down the river throug-h a dense wilder- 

The undergrowth was thick in the heavy 
timber, with but few clearing's, the river low, 
and snag-s and sand bars g-ave us much trouble 
making- our prog-ress slow. At sundown of 
the first day we came to the hut of an old 
hermit named Lodg-e. The next clearing- and 
cabin were miles below\ We were hung-ry 
and wet. It was unseasonably cold, and nig-ht 
with Eg-yptian darkness was coming- on in 
that narrow stream, w^ith its heavy timber 
and underg-rowth. But Lodg-e's cabin was a 
wretched place, shared by a chicken pen and 
afforded no accommodation. There was noth- 
ing- to do but g-o on and that we did. 


It soon became so dark we could not 
see each other on the raft and nothino- of the 
river or our vveiy, but by ^ood fortune, snagfs, 
sand bars and the rixer banks were avoided. 
In fact we went better in the darkness than 
we had in the daylig-ht. A break in the for- 
est o-iving- a g-limpse of the sky told us when 
the next clearing- was reached about eleven 

Neither habitation or lig-hts were visible, 
but a hail brought a response. We found a 
comfortable cabin with a cheerful and most 
welcome open fire. Getting some bread and 
milk for supper, the next want was a place to 
sleep. There were in the small room three 
beds all fully occupied. But two men in a 
bed on the floor very kindly proposed to lie 
cross-ways and make room for us and we 
turned in, and being very tired, slept soundly. 

The next day completed the river part of 
our journey, and a three mile haul to the south 
brought our lumber to its destination. 
Wright's Corners were on the line between 
Jackson and Clinton Counties, and our cabin 
was about twenty rods from the line, in Clin- 
ton County, on the east side of the north and 
south road, with the east branch of Prairie 
Creek in front on the west, the road running- 
between the cabin and the creek. 

With rough loose boards for floors above 


and below we moved in, without doors or 
windows, and I went forty miles to Dubuque 
for some stove pipe. But settled in our own 
home, thoug-h scantily furnished with table, 
stand, rocking- and small chair and a few 
dishes, we were contented and happy. 

Our first bedstead was of hickory poles. A 
few carpenters' tools fortunately broug-ht 
along- provided means for making* many useful 
articles of furniture out of the boxes in which 
our g-oods were packed, such as a cupboard 
for dishes, another for books, and a bed for 
the oldest boy 

Chapter IV. 

With our neit^hbors we at once bej^an work 
on a lo<>' school house, a few rods south of our 
cabin, where without floor, doors or windows, 
we opened a Sunday School. A Mr. Thomas 
Plathers was made superintendent. This was 
the first school house in Clinton County and 
there was none in Jackson County, and it was 
used by me as a meeting* house for preaching" 
and other relig-ious services. 

Six miles west, at the house of Brother Earl 
was another place where meetings were reg^u- 
larly held. There was in Brother Earl's 
house no stove or fire-place. Fire for warm- 
ing- and cooking- was built on the g-round in the 
middle of one room. An opening- was left in 
the roof to let out the smoke, but it did not 
all, or always, g-o out of this opening', and my 
cong-reg-ation was often in tears over the 

Another appointment was at a cabin on a 
ridg-e twelve miles in the timber. Here a day 
or two before one of my visits the owner 
killed a monster panther which was after one 
of his hog-s. 



My first sermon in Iowa was in the un- 
finished log- cabin of John Shaw, where Ma- 
quoketa now stands; the second at Iowa City; 
the third at Tipton; the fourth at Berg-oon's 
Pord on the Wapsy, and the fifth at a Metho- 
dist Quarterly meeting- held in their log- 
church in the timber. This church had then 
no floor or window opening's, light coming- in 
throug-h the open door, and the spaces in the 
log- sides. Meeting's held where the villag-e of 
Maquoketa now stands were in a sod-covered 
log- cabin built for a blacksmith shop. 

During- the first summer in Iowa, I preached 
once in Rock Island, four times in Davenport, 
three times in Marion, Linn County; three 
times in Tipton, Cedar County; and once at 
Andrew, the county seat of Jackson County. 

A man named Jackson was hung- to the limb 
of an oak tree near the log- court house in 
Andrew that summer for the murder of a man 
named Perkins. Perkins had a claim on the 
Maquoketa river, and Jackson jumped it and 
killed him. This claim was between Canton 
and Maquoketa, and my neig-hbor Rig-g-s and 
I, with our raft of lumber, went past the Per- 
kins' clearing- and the scene of the murder 
on our trip down the river. 

The one hundred dollars a year from the 
Missionary Board was the only money re- 
ceived, and postage, which was twenty-five 


cents a letter, made a heavy inroad on this 
amount, and if some kind Eastern friend en- 
closed a one dollar bill then the postaj^e 
became fifty cents. But soon after moving" 
into our home, Bloomfield postoffice was es- 
tablished, w^ith our cabin for the office and 
myself the postmaster; and I was allowed to 
receive letters free from postag-e as one of 
the emoluments of the office, a privilege thor- 
oughly appreciated. How good it was to get 
letters from the old home and not have to pay 
out the last quarter for postage. We had one 
in-coming" and one out-going mail a week, on 
horse back. 

On Aug-ust 31, 1842, a meeting was held at 
the home of Brother Earl for the purpose of 
org-anizing- a Baptist Church. An organiza- 
tion was effected with the following- members: 

Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Doolittle, Mr and Mrs. 
Jason Pangborn, Mr. and Mrs. W. Y. Earl, 
Mr. and Mrs. Levi Decker, Mr. and Mrs. Esq. 
Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Brown, Mrs. 
Eliza Ballard, Mrs. Mitchell. 

Other Baptist People in that region were: 
Mr. and Mrs. Ebenezer Wilcox, on Bear 
Creek; Mr. Woodsworth, twelve miles in the 
timber; Mrs, Jno. Wilcox, at South Grove; 
Mrs. David Bently, at Wright's Corners; Mr. 
and Mrs. Clark, three miles northeast, and 
Mrs. Palmer at Andrew. 


Bro. Jason Pang-born and family came from 
Northeastern New York. Sister Pang-born 
was a devoted Christian, educated and re- 
fined. Like most of the early settlers, their 
means were very limited. Before leaving 
their eastern home she became blind. When 
we called on them they were living- in a 
small log- cabin at the northeast corner of the 
quarter section on which the Midland North- 
western Railway station is located, at Maquo- 

In that little cabin with scarcely anything- 
contributing- to comfort or convenience, and 
with her husband and four small children, 
cheerfully, without complaint, she was, with 
extended hands, feeling her toilsome way in 
total darkness, caring- for her family. 

Some years later we attended the funeral 
of one of her children, a little boy. She had 
never seen him. At the close of the services 
she was led to the open coffin. Standing- 
there tenderly and lovingly for a few moments 
with tears fast falling- from her sig-htless eyes, 
she passed her hands over the cold face say- 
ing-, "I have never seen the dear child's face. 
I must get an impression of how he looks." 
The dear mother has gone where the blind 
can see and where loving- eyes are never 
dimmed by tears. 

At the Iowa City Convention in June, ar- 


rano-ements were made for a meetin<r in Dav- 
enport on the 16th of September, for the pur- 
pose of orcranizing- an association embracing 
all the churches north of the Iowa river. 
When the time came to go to Dav- 
enport, Bro. Doolittle could furnish a horse 
for me to ride. But that would not do, 
as I wanted Mrs. Brown to go. The light 
wagon used on the trip to Iowa City was gone. 
Borrowing the rear axle, wheels and hounds 
of a lumber wagon, I made a pair of shafts 
from fence poles, and a seat by boring holes 
in these poles, putting in wooden pins of suit- 
able length and fastening a board on top. A 
bundle of oats w;as used for a cushion, made 
necessary by the lack of spring in the axle- 
tree. With this conveyance we set out for 
our forty mile ride to Davenport, having the 
advantage over our Iowa City journey — of a 
very well defined road. We thoroughly en- 
joyed the ride over the broad prairies and 
through groves, where the foot of civilized 
man had been, until very recently, a stranger 
since time began. 

The first human habitation after leaving our 
neighborhood was at Point Pleasant, Kirtley's 
ferry, where we crossed the Wapsy, about 
twenty-two miles from home. A few miles 
farther on our way brought us to Long Grove, 
where we found some Scotch families, broth- 


ers named Brownlee, and here we stopped for 
the nig-ht and were very hospitably enter- 
tained by the kind, good people. 

Early next day we arrived in Davenport, 
where, notwithstanding- the peculiar and con- 
spicuous character of our conveyance, and the 
fact that road carts were not as common and 
popular as in later years, we had no hesita- 
tion and felt no embarrassment in driving- 
throug-h Main Street and to the residence of 
Dr. Witherwax, where we were invited to 

Our meeting-s were held in the chamber of 
a small frame building- on Front Street. The 
following- churches were represented: 

Bath, later LeClaire, org-anized in June 1839, 
with six members. 

Davenport, org-anized in September 1839, 
with seven members. 

Dubuque, org-anized in Aug^ust 1840, with 
eleven members. 

Blooming-ton, now Muscatine, org-anized in 
October 1841, with five members. 

Iowa City, org-anized in June 1841, with 
eleven members. 

Forks of the Maquoketa, org-anized in 
Aug-ust 1842, with fourteen members. 

Also the Church at Rock Island, Ills. 

Every church north of the Iowa river was 
represented, except one on the line between 


Delaware and Jones Counties, of which Rev. 
Ira Blanchard was pastor. 

The pastors present were, Rev. B. Carpen- 
ter, Dubuque; Rev. W. B. Morrey, Iowa City; 
Rev. E. Fisher, Muscatine; Rev. T. Gillett, 
Rock Island; Rev. C. K. Brown, Maquoketa. 

The following-, which we quote, expresses 
the spirit of the meeting-, which continued 
throug-h Friday, Saturday and Sunday; 

"This first meeting- of the Davenport Asso- 
ciation was one of sweet and precious interest. 
After sing-ing- at the close, the hymn, "From 
Whence Doth This Union Arise," the breth- 
ren reluctantly parted for their homes and 
their work." 

These were not the days of railroad coaches 
and cushioned carriag-es, but of emig-rant 
trails, unbridg-ed rivers, creeks and sloug-hs, 
lumber wag"ons, prairie schooners and old 

But there was precious enjoyment in this 
pioneer missionary life and work and we 
loved it. How sweet the memory still. 

Chapter V. 

The winter of 1842-3, long- and cold, set in 
early in November with a heavy fall of snow. 

Our unfinished log- cabin away out on the 
bleak prairie, was not suitable to winter in, 
and with the approval of the Home Missionary 
Board, we went to Davenport, intendino- to 
return to Maquoketa in the Spring-. 

We at once eng-ag"ed in pastoral work with 
the Davenport and Rock Island Churches. 
Little could have been accomplished at such a 
time at Maquoketa; but there was a g-ood 
opening- in the new field. For many weeks, 
in the dead of that long- hard winter, revival 
meetinofs \^ere held in the Rock Island Court 
House, the solid ice bridg-e on the river en- 
abling- the Davenport people to attend and 
take part, which they did, and shared larg-ely 
in the g-ood result of the work. 

More that fifty new members were received 
by conversion and baptism in the two churches. 
Among those baptised were, Harman G. Rey- 
nolds and wife, John A. Boyer and wife and 
Horace Anthony and wife. Brother Reynolds 
became a useful preacher of the g-ospel, and 



died at Blue Rapids, Kansas. Brother Boyer 
and wife were for more than forty years 
among- the most useful and exemplary mem- 
bers of the Rock Island Church until they 
died in the Lord. Brother Boyer was for many 
years a deacon of the church. Brother Horace 
Anthony and wife were for many years hon- 
ored members of the church at Camanche, 
and there they died. Brother Anthony was 
one of the deacons of the Camanche Church. 

Another of the converts was sister Abigail 
Swartout, mother of the Rev. P. R. Swartout, 
an honored minister of the g-ospel in Illinois. 

During- the fall of 1842, the brick walls of a 
small house of worship were put up by the 
Davenport Church. A few mild days in Jan- 
uary were improved to put the roof on, and 
in this condition it served for holding- meet- 

At Davenport in 1842-3, Johnny Dillon, a 
lad of about twelve years, was one of my Sun- 
day School scholars. 

The family from Montg-omery County, New 
York, came to Davenport in 1838. They were, 
like ourselves and many other pioneers, of 
limited means and the humbler walks of life; 
kind, pleasant neig-hbors and g-ood friends, of 
hig-h character. 

The boy, John Forrest Dillon, throug-h his 
own efforts, industry, integ-rity and ability, 


became Judg-e and Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of Iowa, Judg-e of the United 
States Circuit Court, and the author of text 
books on important legal subjects, a credit to 
the state of his adoption, loved, honored and 
respected by its people. 

His reputation as a jurist, for ability, at- 
tainments, integrity and fairness, and as a 
law-writer, is second to none in the country. 

He resigned his position as United States 
Circuit Judge, to become Professor of Equity 
Jurisprudence of the Columbia Law School, 
and later Chief Counsel for the Union Pacific 
Railway Company, the Western Union Tele- 
g-raph Company and the Missouri Pacific Rail- 

Judge Dillon is a gentleman of fine personal 
appearance, commanding- presence, dignified, 
g-enial, modest, unassuming-, kindly and ap- 

In the summer of 1843 we made several 
missionary trips to points up the river, org-an- 
izing- a church at Port Byron on the Illinois 
side, where I baptized three into membership, 
and another at Camanche, where eig-ht were 
baptized at the time and more later. 

The first annual meeting- of the Davenport 
Association was held in Dubuque. Deacon 
Calkins and myself from Davenport were del- 
eg-ates. We made the eig-hty mile journey 


tog"ether in a bug-g^y and put up the first nig-ht 
at Andrew in Jackson County, about fifty 
miles from Davenport. 

We here found to our sorrow, that while the 
Indians had g-one the bed bug-s remained. On 
retiring" the deacon being- tired, was soon 
sound asleep, but the elder didn't and couldn't 
g-o to sleep. Later the attack became so stren- 
uous he g-ot up and retreated to the door 
yard and then to a cabin where he found the 
horse and a nest of pig's. 

The pigs vacated, and after remaining- a 
time he decided to try the bed ag-ain, thinking- 
the deacon would by this time monopolize the 
bug's, but to his amazement they were as 
plentiful as ever, and ten fleas to every bug-. 
He then surrendered without condition, 
giving- up all idea of sleep or rest, and longed 
for day. These things are mentioned, not in 
the w^ay of complaint, but as an instance of 
the spice of pioneer life 

We had at Dubuque a grand, good meeting, 
six new churches joining the association. 
Meetings were held in the Baptist Church, a 
small frame building sixteen by twenty-four 
feet. This was the first house of worship 
built by the Baptists in Iowa. The Daven- 
port Church was the second. Returning 
home, we put up the first night wdth Deacon 
Montague near Andrew; very pleasant people, 


just out from New York. They lived in a 
log- cabin, roofed with broad boards which 
were badly warped. 

A heavy thunder storm came up in the 
nig-ht and literally rained us out of bed. 
Deacon Calkins, being- much more sensitive 
to water than to bed bug's, soon turned out, 
but the elder stayed until the water beg-an 
running- into the bed. We felt very sorry for 
Sister Montag-ue in her eifort to save the nice 
thing-s she broug-ht with her from her eastern 
home. Nothing- further of interest occurred 
on our journey home. 

In the summer of 1843, Capt. Wilson, who 
ran the ferry between Davenport and Rock 
Island, put on a horse-power boat in place of 
a little scow or yawl, which was a g-reat im- 

Chapter VI. 

Our next field of labor was at LeClaire, 
fifteen miles above Davenport on the river, at 
the head of the upper rapids, where we went 
in the spring- of 1844. The summer of 1844 
was one of high winds, floods and tornados. 

The second annual meeting of the Terri- 
torial Missionary Convention was held at Mt. 
Pleasant in Henry County, in June. Brothers 
James Turner, William Palmer and myself 
were deleg-ates from LeClaire. For the 
journey I furnished a lig-ht lumber wag-on and 
Brother Turner ahorse. To lig-hten the load 
the box, except the bottom boards, was taken 
off. Rain and heavy roads made our prog-ress 
slow. We put up on the second nig-ht about 
half way between Muscatine and Wapello, 
then the county seat of Louisa County, and if 
clouds ever bursted they did all of that 
nig-ht. Far away on the uninhabited g-rounds 
west of Wapello we came about noon the next 
day to Crooked Creek which was booming-. 
. It was about thirty feet wide and ten feet 
deep. Fording- was out of the question. We 
must swim or turn back, and g-oing- back was 
no part of the prog-ramme. 



Finding a grape vine near I cut and pulled 
it out of the tree. Taking- the wagon to 
pieces we used the bottom boards for a raft 
The g-rape vine was fastened to one end and 
the lines from the harness to the other. I 
swam the creek with the g-rape vine, and by 
pulling- the raft back and forth the running- 
g-ear of the wag-on and our bag-gage was fer- 
ried across. Then the horse was driven in 
and caug-ht on the opposite side, and lastly 
Bros. Turner and Palmer sw^am over. This 
took time and it was eleven o'clock at night 
when we reached the banks of Big- Creek four 
miles from Mt. Pleasant, and found it flooded 
and impassable by team, and no human habi- 
tation in sig-ht. Calls long- and loud at length 
obtained a reply from a man on the opposite 
bank who said that half a mile above w^e would 
find a cabin, which we did and w^ere very 
kindly entertained for the nig-ht. My com- 
panions being elderly men occupied a bed, 
and I the floor, before a cheerful fire. In the 
morning- we crossed the creek on a tree fallen 
for that purpose, and walked a few miles to 
Mt. Pleasant, there being neither ford or 
ferry for our conveyance. The convention 
meeting-s were held on Friday, Saturday and 
Sunday, and thoug-h roads and weather w^ere 
bad there was a g^ood attendance and the meet- 
ing's were very interesting-, and we felt amply 


compensated for all our trouble in petting- 
there. There was no rain durino- the meet- 
ing-s and our journey home wns made without 

During- our stay at LeClaire, a comfortable 
brick church with stone basement w^as erected. 
The credit for building- this church was larg-e- 
ly due to my w'ife. We went to New York 
for the winter of 1844-5, and while there Mrs. 
Brown collected money enoug-h to make a 
beg-inning-. I quarried rock for the basement 
and tended the mason. In the summer of 
1845, Elder J. U, Seeley, pastor of the Baptist 
Church at Muscatine, w^ith a man and horse 
towed a flat boat up the river fifty miles to 
Port Byron for lime to build a meeting- house 
for his cong-reg-ation. I g-ave him the lumber 
for doors and window^s. That was the way 
churches were built in Iowa in early days. 
While pastor of the LeClaire Church I 
entered some land on the prairie a few 
miles west of town and built a small brick 
house, which we occupied until the fall of 
1847. Our nearest neig-hbor was a Scotch- 
Irish family of Campbells, half a mile to the 
south. East, west and north, the illimitable 
prairie spread out w^ithout human habitation 
in sig-ht. 

Between our place and LeClaire lived a 
family of Cody's, and one of the sons, then a 


young- boy, was William P. Cody, who became 
Buffalo Bill, the famous scout and showman. 
James DeGrush Brown, our third child and 
son, was born in the brick house on the 
prairie, February 9th, 1846. In the summer 
of 1846, my father and mother made us a most 
welcome visit, driving- with one horse and a 
covered bugg-y from Madison County, New 
York, to Scott County, Iowa, a notable jour- 
ney. They were six weeks on the road each 
way. During- our pioneer days in Iowa, 1842 
to 1851, the Indian tribes, from whom the 
land was had by purchase and treaty, were 
frequent visitors. They were the genuine 
Aborig-ines, uncontaminated by contact with 
the whites. As a rule friendly but when 
g*ame was scarce disposed to make free with 
the cattle and hog-s of the settlers, and their 
presence always excited some fear of possible 
dang-er. They were savages and we never 
knew what they might do. These Indians 
were fine specimens of their race; stalw^art, 
dig-nified, comely, active and fearless; well 
supplied with wig'wams, ponies, robes and 
blankets, bow^s, arrows and g-uns. A visit to 
their camp was always interesting- In these 
early days prairie fires were novel, exciting-, 
and often dang-erous incidents. In the fall 
when the heavy g-rowth of grass on prairie 
and in sloug-hs w^as dead and dry they were 


frequent. Seen in the ni^fht, driven swiftly 
by hi^h winds, extending- for miles, and 
lig-htintr the heavens with their lurid <4-low, the 
sio-ht was something- to remember. 

Pioneer life on the far western border had 
its compensations as well as its hardships, 
privations and trials. The early settlers were 
proverbially hospitable. Neighbors were 
sociable, kindly, sympathetic and helpful; and 
people who lived this life, as a rule loved it, 
and preferred it to any other. 

At LeClaire in the fall of 1843, under the 
labors of Elder J. N. Seeley, a precious and 
powerful revival of relig-ion occurred, twenty- 
two being- added to the church by conversion 
and baptism at the time and more later. 

Chapter VII. 

We remained five years in Scott County, 
from the fall of 1842 until the fall of 1847, 
when we returned to Maquoketa. We made 
several visits to that place during* the time, 
and always felt g-reatly interested in it. Mr. 
John E. Goodenow. one of the first settlers 
and proprietor of the town site, presented 
me with a lot, on the corner of Piatt and Eliza 
Streets, on which to build a home. The little 
town had at that time two small g-eneral stores; 
a blacksmith shop, a small brick school house 
and a hotel, and probably about two hundred 
people. Between the north and south forks of 
the Maquoketa river, north and west of town, 
was the finest body of timber then known in 
the Territory, owing- to the fact that the 
rivers and conformation of the adjacent coun- 
try protected it from the ravag-es of prairie 

There was no finer farming- country, soil 
or surrounding-s to be found in the west. We 
built a comfortable little home on the lot Mr. 
Goodenow g-ave us and occupied it until May, 

We at once resumed pastoral work at 



Maquoketa and in Fc'l)ruar\' followino- re- 
org-anized the church with sixteen members. 
Durino' this winter the Baptists and Metho- 
dists joined in holding- revival meeting-s. re- 
sulting* in g-reat gfood work. The re-organized 
Baptist Church consisted of nine male and 
seven female members. The first new mem- 
bers received by baptism were two young- 
ladies, Frances Mears and Mary Pang-born, 
most excellent and exemplary Christians. 
My outlying stations for missionary work in 
the Maquoketa field were LaMotte, twent}^ 
miles to the north; Pence's School House, 
nine miles w^est on Bear Creek; Burlesons, 
six miles west, and Wright's Corners, tw^o 
miles south, where we held very interesting- 
meetings in the chamber of Mr. Wright's new 
house. Appointments were occasionally made 
and filled at Cascade and Andrew; small out- 
lying settlements. The pastor and church 
who confine their work to the narrow limits of 
the town where they are located cannot have 
much of the gospel missionary spirit. They 
need more of the spirit of enlargement that 
animated the church at Jerusalem when God 
scattered the members and they went abroad 
preaching the Word. 

Deacon Phillip went down to Samaria and 
beg-an revival meeting-s, preaching- the prec- 
ious g-ospel, and there was g-reat joy in that 


city; "For when they believed Phillip preach- 
ing- the thing-s concerning- the kingdom of 
God, and the name of Jesus Christthey were 
baptized, both men and women." 

Peter and others came down from Jerusa- 
lem and they went on with the good work. 
When we next hear of Phillip he is away 
southwest of Jerusalem. Coming out upon 
the g-reat road from Jerusalem to Gaza, he 
met the Ethiopian Eunuch in his chariot read- 
ing the book of Isaiah so full of Christ and 
salvation. God prepares the way for the 
missionary spirit. Philip said to the Eunuch, 
''Understandest thou what thou readest?" 
"How can I unless some man guides me." 
"Come with me in the chariot," said the 
Eunuch, and Phillip began at the same script- 
ure and preached Jesus unto him. And they 
came to a certain water and the Eunuch said, 
"Here is water, what doth hinder me to be 
baptized?" And Phillip said, "If thou believ- 
eth with all thine heart thou mayest;" and he 
answered and said, "I believe that Jesus 
Christ is the Son of God." And they went 
down into the water, both Phillip and the 
Eunuch and he baptized him. Here is an 
admirable illustration of the simplicity and 
adaptability of the gospel. . Philip did not say 
"I am only a deacon, wait while I go to Jeru- 
salem for Peter and he will baptize you No, 

Phillip baptized him tind he went on his way 
rejoicin<4", doubtless preacliinj^' Jesus on the 
wav and when he ^ot home to Ethiopia 

When we study this bit of Philli])'s history, 
how he preached and baptized, re^-ardless of 
modern ritualism and formalism, and the 
oflorious results that followed, we feel as we 
imag-ine Father Leonard, a shouting- Metho- 
dist, did in our boyhood days. He was a 
small man but a great shouter, and some of 
his brethren thoug-ht he didn't shout at just 
the rig-ht time, and remonstrated with him, 
and he promised to restrain his feeling-s and 
was remarkably quiet for some time. But one 
day, in a g-ood old-fashioned meeting-, he w^as 
seen rubbing- his hands and shrug-ging- his 
shoulders, when straig-htening- up he shouted, 
"Amen, praise the Lord." "Amen, hit or 

We do need in our churches more of 
Phillip's missionary spirit. 

While at Maquoketa a suitable lot was se- 
cured for a meeting- house. 

In 1845 the Maquoketa people beg-an to plan 
for an Academy, and Mr. Goodenow, always 
public spirited, g-enerous and enterprising-, 
donated a handsome site for the building-. In 
1849 the work was taken up and vigorously 

Early in the fall of that year at the instance 


of the trustees, I went to Eastern New York 
to solicit funds. Many of the early settlers 
came from that section and had friends and 
acquaintances there. 

I found the iron industry, in which the cap- 
ital and labor of that part of the state was 
larg-ely employed, paralyzed by adverse tariff 
leg-islation, (Democratic free trade policy). 
Business was dull, times hard and money 
scarce, and ver}^ little could be done in the 
way of obtaining- aid for the Maquoketa Acad- 
emy. But in spite of discourag-ement the 
work went on, and the building-, handsome and 
commodious for the time and place, was com- 

Mechanics and laborers eng-ag-ed on the 
work were boarded in the families of enter- 
prising- citizens to help along-, the pioneer 
wives and mothers cheerfully contributing- 
time and toil in the g-ood cause. Competent 
teachers were employed and many of the 
children of the Maquoketa settlers laid there 
the substantial foundation for their education. 
Dr. Lake from Kentucky was the first teacher 
and an uncommonly g-ood one, capable and 

Good lessons and deportment and thoroug-h 
training- was the rule. Dr. Lake was for more 
than forty years a resident of Maquoketa, 
and died there loved and respected b}^ all. My 


brother-in-law, Mr. James O. DeGrush, of 
Little Falls, New York, with his wife, Mrs. 
Brown's sister, visited us at Maquoketa in 
the summer of 1850. 

In June I w-ent with them as far as Rock 
Island on their homeward journey. 

Returning- with a heavy load of goods for 
one of our merchants, I was on the road most 
of one night, w^iich, thou<jfh in midsummer, 
w^as cold with heavy dew. 

Getting- chilled and taking- a severe cold I 
was very soon the subject of a serious attack 
of inflammatory rheumatism, confining me to 
the house and often to my bed much of the 
time for many months. My general health 
became so badly broken I decided in the 
spring- of 1851 to return to New York in the 
hope of regaining* it. 

Accordingly, on Tuesday, May 26th, 1851, 
all needful preparations having been made, 
we took leave of Maquoketa and our w^estern 
friends and acquaintances, and with our own 
conveyance, fitted up for making- the journey 
overland, turned our faces toward our old 
home in the far east. 

Chapter VIII. 

At Maquoketa on the 20th day of June 1848, 
our oldest son, Benjamin Perry Brown, then 
in his ninth year, was drowned in the Maquo- 
keta river. 

In the afternoon of that day permission was 
o-iven him and his youno-er brother, Charles, 
to g-o bathing" with the understanding- that 
they were to g-o below the Sear's Mill, where 
the water was shallow and safe. 

They very soon fell in with some town boys, 
playmates, who were on their way to the river 
for a swim and were g"oing- to Brown's Pord, 
above the mill and dam, in deep water. Some 
of these boys at once began urging* our chil- 
dren to accompany them, and after a long- 
parley, at the place w^here the road to the ford 
put off from the one leading- down below the 
mill, Benny and Charles went with them. 
The boys were all young-, none more than ten 
or twelve years of age. Benny w^as the first 
one in the water, and was at once beyond his 
depth. Oscea, son of John E. Goodenow, was 
the only one wath presence of mind to g-o for 
help. It came very soon but too late. With- 
in an hour from the time the boys left home 



Benny's lifeless body was hrou<i;-ht back. He 
was of an uncommonly amiable, winnin^r dis- 
position; lovincr and obedient, considerate and 
conscientious beyond his years. His sudden 
death was a terrible affliction and the blow 
fell wnth crushing- weig-ht upon his mother, 
who idolized him. 

At our little home in Maquoketa another 
sad occurrence was the death of Nelson 
Walker, Mrs. Brow^n's nephew. He was a 
young- man of the highest character and prom- 
ise, very capable and energ^etic, just g'oing' 
into business with every prospect of success. 

He made friends of all he met and his un- 
timely death was deeply mourned by relatives 
and friends. 

We left Maquoketa for New York on May 
26th, 1851, just nine years to a day from the 
time we came there, intending- to make the 
journey with our own conveyance, but on Sat- 
urday following- rain beg-an and continued to 
such an extent that arriving- at Chicago we felt 
compelled to abandon the plan. We crossed 
the lake by steamer to New Buffalo, where we 
took the cars on the Michigan Central road to 
Detroit, and a Lake Erie steamboat from 
Detroit to Buffalo. From Buffalo to Little 
Palls in Herkimer County, we went with our 
conveyance. Our first location in New York 
was at Holland Patent in Onedia County, 


where my fathei was pastor of the Baptist 
Church and where we remained a year, and 
my health steadily improved. While here I 
supplied the church at Steuben, a few miles 

The place was named for Baron Steuben, a 
German nobleman, who did valuable service 
on our side in the war of the revolution. The 
state of New York o-ranted him sixteen thou- 
sand acres of land, then a dense wilderness 
of heavy timber. The loc^ cabin where he 
spent his summers, and hisg-rave, marked by 
a plain marble slab, were on this tract of land. 
In the sprinor of 1852 we went to Russia, in 
Herkimer County, and preached to the church 
at that place for a year; and in March 1853, I 
ag-ain became pastor of the Norway, Herkimer 
County Church, occupying- the parsonag-e 
where we beg-an housekeeping- in November 

The extreme anti-slavery views and preach- 
ing- of a former pastor had divided the church. 
Althoug-h decidedly anti-slavery myself, I 
took sides with neither party and made no 
direct effort for reconciliation or harmony, 
discourag-ing- all reference to the trouble. A 
letter written December 5th following- and 
published in the Watchman of Boston, sets 
forth the course I pursued and results: 


Norway, Herkimer County, N. Y. 
December 5th, 1853. 

Dear Brother Editor: 

In the autumn of 1838, just from the institu- 
tion at Hamilton, I commenced my first pas- 
toral labors with this church, which were 
continued some eighteen or twenty months. 
During that time it was my privilege to bap- 
tize seventeen into the fellowship of the church. 
After spending thirteen years in other parts of 
the great harvest, nine of them in the Western 
Valley, an inscrutable and all-wise Providence 
has returned me to the people of my first 
charge, and to occupy the same residence 
where my dear companion joined me in the 
responsibilities of housekeeping. I commenc- 
ed labor here last March, but what a change 
had come over the condition and prospects of 
this branch of God's beloved Zion. The once 
united, prosperous, happy and efficient church 
was divided and distracted, brotherly love 
gone, confidence and Christian fellowship gone. 
That good Christian influence which she 
once exerted in the community gone. The 
communion was neglected for two years. The 
work was commenced with the firm convic- 
tion that salvation depended upon the gracious 
work of the Divine Spirit. The preaching 
during the summer had this conviction con- 
stantly in view. At Covenant meeting in 
September the proposition was made and 
agreed to that all agitation of the subject of 


discord should cease in private and public and 
they would resume travel as a church by ob- 
serving the ordinance of the Lord's Supper 
the following Sabbath. It was indeed an in- 
teresting season. At prayer meeting that 
Sabbath evening the Good Spirit was present, 
and before the next Covenant meeting we were 
in the midst of a revival, with weeping souls 
saying, "Pray for us," and all hearts melted 
in view of the matchless mercy and kindness 
of God. At our third communion season, 
observed monthly, the hand of fellowship was 
given to ten joyful converts who had just been 
baptized. And others followed. While coun- 
cils and meetings to talk over troubles hardly 
ever result in peace, harmony and brotherly 
love, the presence of the Divine Spirit never 

Chapter IX. 

At the parsonatre in Norway on July 29th, 
1853, William Carlos and Georg-e Lyon Brown, 
twin sons, were born to us. 

We were in central and western New York 
until July 1857, g'oing- from Norway to Fen- 
ner, Madison County, the fall of 1854, and to 
Orleans County in the spring- of 1856. Having- 
reg*ained health, the Home Missionary Society 
ag-ain desig-nated me for a field of labor in 

On Tuesday, July 14th, 1857, with my fam- 
ily, Mrs. Brown. James, Willie and Georg-e, I 
left Buffalo on the steamer "Southern Mich- 
ig-an" for Toledo, our oldest son Charles re- 
maining- in Orleans County. 

Arriving- at Toledo 2 p. m. Wednesday, w^e 
took the Michig-an Southern and Indiana 
Northern Railway to Chicag-o. Mrs. Brown 
and the children went by rail, Chicag-o to 
DeWitt, and I by my own conveyance, horse 
and bug-g-y to Maquoketa. After visiting- rel- 
atives and friends at Maquoketa, I left for 
Northeastesn Iowa, July 30th, to find a field 
for labor, the selection of a location being- left 
to me, stopping- the first nig-ht at Dubuque. 



On the first nig-ht out of Dubuque I put up 
with a German family just west of Gutten- 

The weather was hot, and German bedding- 
— a heavy feather bed under and a lighter one 
for cover, made it a perspiring* time. Satur- 
day, Aug-ust 1, arrived atRossville, Alamakee 
County, where I spent the Sabbath, preach- 
ing- twice. 

Here I met Elder James Schofield, with 
whom I was to counsel as to a location. But 
as he knew little of the country west of 
Alamakee County, the matter was left to my 
own judg-ment. On Monday I drove nine miles 
to Waukon, stopping- with Mr. A. J. Hershey. 
Elder L. M. Newell was pastor at Alamakee. 
I met here Brother Samuel Hill who was 
licensed to preach and who proposed to g-o 
with me. 

I found him pleasant company and a g-ood 
missionary worker. We w^ent on Tuesday to 
Preeport, Winnishiek County, stopping- with 
the family of Brother Leach. 

Here I found several Baptist brethren, and 
made an appointment to preach on Wednes- 
day evening-. On Wednesday we walked to 
Decorah, a few miles, and back. We had a 
g-ood cong-reg-ation in the evening-, and Broth- 
er Hill preached. 

On Thursday we followed the Iowa river to 


BliifFton, twelve miles eibove Decorah, where I 
found Elder Rice and several Baptist families 

Elder Rice was a brother of Elders Wm. 
and Lorenzo Rice, who were fellow students 
with me at Madison University in Hamilton, 
New York. 

On Friday, August 7th, we continued our 
journey to New Oregon and Vernon Springs, 
in Howard County, stopping at night with 
Rev. J. W. Windsor, pastor of the New 
Oregon Congregational Church. 

Brother Windsor was a near neighbor and 
friend of ours at Maquoketa in 1848. He was 
living on a farm two miles northwest of Ver- 
non Springs. I learned from him that there 
were several Baptist families in that vicinity. 
On Saturday, August 8th, we went to Vernon 
where we found and called on a number of 
Baptists. Elder Chas. H. Roe of Belvidere, 
111., w^as there visiting relatives and friends, 
and Elder P. S. Whitman, whom we visited at 
Belvidere, 111 , in May 1842, on our first jour- 
ney west, was living at Vernon. We found 
a very general desire for the organization of a 
Baptist Church and arranged for meetings for 
the following day, Sunday, August 9th, Broth- 
er Roe to preach at Vernon Springs, and I at 
Father Fuller's, a few miles to the southwest 
on the prairie. 

On Sunday afternoon a meeting for consul- 


tation was held by the Baptist brothers and 
sisters of Vernon, and arrang-ements were 
made to meet on Tuesday, at the residence of 
Judg-e Samuel P. Gilcrest, whose wife, Mary 
Ann Gilcrest, was a Baptist. We had an 
excellent meeting- at the appointed time and 
resolved to org-anize a church on the following- 

On Wednesday Brother Hill and I started 
west to visit Riceville, Osag-e and Mitchell, in 
Mitchell County, stopping- the first nig-ht at 
Riceville, and g'oing- next day to Osag-e and 
Mitchell. This being- Thursday and as we 
were to be at Vernon Spring's ag-ain on Satur- 
day we had little time at these places. On 
Friday morning-, August 14th, we set out to 
return by way of Pettibone. 

Rain fell heavily the preceding- nig-ht and 
roads were bad and sloug-hs full, and a mile 
east of Pettibone we stuck in one and had to 
unhitch and get the bug-g-y out by hand. 
Nieht and darkness found us still out on the 
prairie southwest of Vernon, where we put up 
at the farm house of Pratt Wallace. An 
early start on Saturday broug-ht us to Vernon 
Spring-s in time for breakfast. Vernon 
Spring-s was located in a beautiful little valley. 
Judg-e Samuel F. Gilcrest of Mt. Vernon, 
Ohio, one of the early settlers, gave it the 
name, Vernon in remembrance of his Ohio 


home. Several spring's sending- out at the 
head of the valley a volume of sparkling- crys- 
tal water sufficient to make a g-ood sized stream 
winding- prettily down for a mile to the Tur- 
key river, sug-g-ested the balance of the name. 

At the foot of the little run was the A. H. 
Harris mill and pond, and a bluff on the oppo- 
site bank was covered by a handsome g-rowth 
of fine timber, The surrounding- country was 
prairie, rolling- and fertile, flecked with g-roves 
of oak, hazel brush and crabapple, making- a 
landscape of rare beauty. 

Indian trails, well worn and deep from long- 
use followed the banks of all the streams. 
The Turkey river, a considerable stream, ran 
across the foot of the Vernon Spring-s valley, 
and was skirted with handsome g-roves. 

There was at this time a g-eneral store, 
postoffice, blacksmith shop, tavern, and a 
frame building- put up for a court house, and 
about a dozen families. The mill fitted for 
g-rinding- g-rain and sawing- log-s brought people 
from a distance. 

It was the family home for many years, and 
around it cluster tender recollections and fond 
memories of the past. It is for many reasons 
a hallowed spot and will ling-er in loving- re- 
membrance while life lasts. 

Chapter X. 

Saturday, August 15th, was spent in pas- 
toral calls and work, Brother Hill preached in 
the evening-. 

Sunday was stormy. Elder Pierson, pas- 
tor of the Baptist Church at Leroy, who was 
invited down, preached in the morning- and I 
in the afternoon, after which the dear little 
church was org-anized. 

The members were, Rev. P. S. Whitman 
and Mrs. Carrie Whitman, his wife; Father 
John Bowers and Sister Clarinda Bowers, his 
wife; Mrs. Mary Ann Gilcrest, wife of Judge 
Samuel P. Gilcrest; Levi Fuller and Mrs. 
Mary Harris. 

At this meeting, to encourage the little 
band and extend the right hand of fellowship, 
there were present, Rev. Chas. H. Roe, of 
Belvidere, Illinois, Rev. C. G. Pierson of 
Leroy, Minn.; Rev. S. Hill of Boston, and Rev. 
C. E. Brown of the Home Missionary Society. 
It was held at 4 p. m., Sunday, August 16th, 
1857, in the up stairs room of the court house 
at Vernon. 

Our household goods had been shipped to 
Lansing, Alamakee County; and having decid- 



ed to locate at Vernon Spring-s, I went with a 
neig-hbor and two teams after them; leavino- 
Vernon on Wednesday, September 2nd, re- 
turning- Saturday, the 4th, and on next Wed- 
nesday, the 9th, started for Maquoketa to g-et 
Mrs. Brown and the children, who were then 
visiting- relatives and friends. 

Arriving- at Maquoketa Friday the 11th, we 
started the following- Monday for our new 
home, away northwest in the "Neutral Lands 
of the Winnebag-oes." 

We reached Vernon Springs on Monday, 
September 21st, 1857, all well and thankful, 
and were very cordially welcomed by all and 
were entertained by Brother C. W. Sawyer 
and wife, who at that time were proprietors 
of the Big- Spring- House, a log- cabin, twelve 
by^ eig-hteen feet, with a lean-to behind. The 
main part was divided into tw^o rooms by a 
bed sheet hung- up for a partition, one of the 
rooms being- occupied by the county officers. 

We at once took possession of a house at 
the head of the valley, rented for a temporary 
home, with Judge S F. Gilcrest, Jno. M. 
Field, Rev. P. S. Whitman and Chas. W. 
Sawyer and families for our neig-hbors. Ver- 
non Spring's was at this time the county seat 
of How^ard Count v, and the people had put up 
a fair sized frame building- for a Court House. 

Very soon after, the county seat was re- 

moved to Howard Center, five miles west, 
leaving- the Vernon building- for school and 
church purposes. The lower rooms were 
used for school purposes and the upper was 
pleasant and comfortable, for meeting's. To 
furnish seats and a pulpit Mr. Cottrell, living- 
in the g-rove, g-ave us a larg-e bass wood tree. 
Brother Sawyer and I cut it into log's and 
hauled it to the mill. 

Mr. A. H. Harris, the mill owner, always 
public spirited and g'enerous, g-ave us an elm 
log- and sawed all into suitable lumber, and our 
meeting- room was soon comfortably seated 
and furnished for use. 

The first Covenant meeting- of the new 
church was held at Brother Sawyer's Sep- 
tember 26th, when Father Benjamin Fuller 
and myself and wife became members. 

At a meeting- the next day Brothers Whit- 
man, Fuller and myself were appointed dele- 
g'ates to the Dubuque Association, soon to 
meet at West Union, where our church was to 
apply for admission. 

At the next Covenant meeting-, October 31, 
Sister Eliza Bushell united by letter, and the 
following- day Brother James Watson was 
baptized in the Turkey river and received 
into membership. 

Beg-inning- Aug-ust 1857, with a little band 
of eight, the membership in two years in- 


creased to thirty, and within the year follow- 
ing- to over sixty. 

At the organization of the church Brother 
P. S. Whitman was made clerk and served 
until April 1859, when Brother C. W. Sawyer 
succeeded him, Brother Whitman moving" 

Father John Bowsers w^as chosen deacon 
December 6th, 1857, and served until 1863, 
when a stroke of apoplexy destroyed mind 
and health. 

Brother James Siddall w^as chosen a deacon 
and served faithfully until his death. 

On Sunday, March 11th, 1860, Brother John 
Milton Bowers and Jane, his wife, and Broth- 
er D. A. Adams and Helena, his wife, and 
others, were baptized, and on Sunday, April 
16th following-. Brother William Woodward 
and seven others w^ere baptized and became 
members of the church. 

In 1861 a school house w^as built and meet- 
ingfs were held in it thereafter. 

The winter of 1857-8 set in cold, with heavy 
snow early in November, mercury g'oing to 
sixteen below^ zero, but November proved the 
coldest month. A thaw took off the snow the 
last of the month and the Turkey river was 
flooded frequently during the winter. 

Among the families of How^ard County 
pioneers who w^ere near and valued friends 


was that of Brother Geo. W. Fall, who came a 
year before we did, and was living- with his 
wife and four daughters in a log- cabin on the 
farm of Chester M. Carver, a mile south of 
Vernon. Brother Pall was a licensed minis- 
ter of the Methodist Church, but not regu- 
larly engaged in the work. 

While quite a young man he had the misfor- 
tune to lose a leg. Notwithstanding this he 
was a very capable, active and tireless worker, 
a p-ood neigfhbor and a kind friend; his cheery 
voice and face made him always welcome. He 
died in How^ard County at the home of his 
daughter, Mrs. Mary Carver, in July 1900, in 
his eighty-eighth year, loved, honored, re- 
spected and mourned by all who knew him; 
his consistent, christian life, faith and hope 
maintained to the last. Sister Hannah Pall, 
his wife, who preceded him to a better land a 
few years, was in every w^ay a worthy com- 

The four daughters, Mary, Arvilla, Adeline 
and Sylvia, were very bright, attractive and 
interesting girls of high character. 

Mary became the wife of Chester M. Car- 
ver; Arvilla and Reuben W. Beadle were mar- 
ried in June, 1860. 

On August 30th, 1866, Adeline the third 
daughter, and my oldest son. Charles P. 
Brown, were married by me at Brother Pall's 


residence in Vernon Springs. Sylvia, (Tib- 
bie) became the wife of W. B. Morey. 

Mr. and Mrs. Carver and Mr. and Mrs. 
Beadle were near and valued neio;-hbors and 
friends for many years. 

Judg-e Samuel P. Gilcrest, from Mount Ver- 
non, Ohio, was one of the prominent early set- 
tlers. He was an educated, courteous and 
kindly gentleman of high character and a 
capable, successful attorney. His thoroug-h 
knowledg-e of the country was very useful to 
settlers in locating land claims and entries. 
Sister Mary Ann Gilcrest, his wife, was a 
highly esteemed member of the Baptist 

Their family consisted of three sons, Frank, 
Murray and John, and one daug-hter, Inez 

Judge Gilcrest went to California over land 
in the summer of 1859, and his family followed 
a few years later. 

Judge and Sister Gilcrest died in California 
some years since. 

Inez, whose husband, Mr. Hugh Craig-, is a 
prominent citizen and business man of San 
Francisco, is living- with an interesting family 
in Oakland. 

Frank, Murray and John with their families 
have homes; Frank in Oakland, John inOreg-on, 



and Murray in Wyoming-. All honorable and 
successful business men. 

Among- the earliest acquaintances and 
friends made in Lime Springs was the family 
of C. C. Hewitt, who settled in the country in 
1855, coming- from Northeastern Illinois, 
where Mr. Hewitt had been engfao-ed as con- 
tractor in the construction of the Chicagfo & 
Galena Union Railway. 

Mr. Hewitt located his claim about one and 
one-half miles west of the old town of Lime 
Springs, a beautiful quarter section with the 
low^a river running- throug-h the southeast 

In the autumn of 1855, a log- cabin for the 
family and a shelter for the yoke of cattle 
were built. The family consisting- of father 
and mother and a little baby g-irl named 
Ella were made as comfortable as possible for 
the approaching winter, and the work of 
fencing- and other preparations for breaking- 
up and working- the farm in the ensuing- spring- 
were made. 

Mrs. Hewitt's maiden name was Mary E. 
Chesebro, and she was a daug-hter of Mrs. 
M. M. Marsh. Mr. Chesebro died in Court- 
land County, New York, and the w^idow mar- 
ried Mr. Marsh. 

Two brothers, Oscar and Oliver Chesebro, 
with their families, came to Lime Spring-s 

with the Hewitt's. Oscar pre-empted a quar- 
ter about half a mile east of the Hewitt claim, 
while Oliver built a log cabin in the villa^-e 
just across the road from the one built and 
occupied for many years by Esquire Marsh 
and family. 

The long rides in the cold and storms of 
our northern Iowa winters, which were made 
every second week to meet my appointments 
at Lime Spring's, were often tedious, but the 
warm and generous welcome to the hospitality 
of those frontier homes alw^ays abundantly 
repaid the inconvenience and discomfort of 
the trip. 

Mrs Brown and the twin boys, George and 
Willie, often accompanied me on these trips, 
and the boys found many congenial compan- 
ions and playmates among the children at 
Lime Springs. 

At a donation party given for my benefit in 
the log house of Squire Marsh, during the 
winter of 1860, my son Willie, then only seven 
years old, met Ella Hew^itt, at that time six, 
and the mutual interest and admiration were 
noted -by many present. The acquaintance 
thus early made continued almost w^ithout in- 
terruption; and fourteen years later, in the 
presence of many who had noticed the begin- 
ning of the courtship, I married the couple at 








the Hewitt home in the "new towm" or station 
of Lime Spring's. 

Among- the families that settled in and 
about Lime Spring-s I recall the Sanborn's, 
Cook's, Knowlton's, Ober's, Haven's, Craig-'s, 
Paddock's, Burg-ess' Van Leuven's, Moulton's, 
Greenleaf's, Aleck and Georg-e Searles, Bunk- 
er's, Johnson's. Well's. Dr. Reed and many 
others, all g-ood citizens and g-ood neig-hbors. 
Brother Alonzo Sag-e and wife. Father Rey- 
nolds, Brother William Reynolds and family, 
Father Buckland and family. Brother D. M. 
Fuller and family w^ill always be remembered 
with kindly g-ratitude and love. 

Mr. Hewitt, Father and Mother Marsh, 
Oliver and Julia Chesebro, Oscar Chesobro, 
and almost every person in active life in those 
early days, have passed from life's activities 
and are sleeping- peacefully in the cemetery 
which overlooks the beautiful valley where 
they located and ^vhich they loved so well. 

Esquire Marsh and family left their home 
in Courtland County, New^ York, the autumn 
of 1836, coming- by canal from Central New 
York to Buffalo, and by sailing- v^essel from 
Buffalo to Chicag-o. 

More than three weeks were consumed in 
making- the trip from Buffalo to Chicag-o, the 
vessel entered Lake Michig-an three times. 


being- twice blown back throug-h the straits of 
Mackinack by adverse winds. 

The family first settled in Illinois in the 
neig^hborhood of Elgin, emigrating to Howard 
County in the early fifties. 

Mr. Marsh built and operated one of the 
first grrist mills in Howard County. He was 
a man of high character, unquestioned integ- 
rity and his uniform kindness of heart and 
courtesy won for him a place in the respect, 
confidence and esteem of the community, such 
as few men enjoy and w^hich lasted through a 
long- and useful life. 

Early in the sixties the Richards family, 
consisting of the father Joseph Richards, his 
wife and four children, William, Benton, Mar- 
garet and Annette, moved from Otranto, 
Minn., to Vernon Springs, and for a number 
of years kept the tavern in the village 

William was a pleasant friend and compan- 
ion of our older boys, while Bent and our twin 
boys, George and Will, were almost inseper- 
able playmates. 

Joseph Richards enlisted in the army in 
1862 and saw hard service in the Indian cam- 
paigns" following- the Sioux massacres of that 
year. He was honorably discharg-ed from the 
service after being seriously wounded in bat- 
tle, and returned to Vernon Springs, w^here 
he lived many years and where he died. Mrs. 






Richards died in Cresco, to which place she 
moved after her husband's death. 

William and Marg-aret took advantag-e of 
every opportunity to acquire an education, 
and were among- the most efficient school 
teachers of those early days. William later 
studied Civil Eng-ineerin^ and became an 
eng-ineer of ability. 

Marg-aret married Henry Thayer, who died 
some years ag"o. Mrs. Thayer still lives on 
the old home place west of Bonair. 

Nettie suffered from a disease of the eyes 
which left her entirely blind, and she died 
many years ag-o. She was a patient sufferer 
for a number of years. 

Benton, the young-er boy, eng-a^ed in min- 
ing- and has located in Montana or Wash- 

Chester M. Carver of Stockbridg-e, Madi- 
son County, New York, left home in April 
1856, for Kansas, visiting-, enroute with 
friends at Solon, Ohio, where he met Mr. 
Appollos White from Howard County, who 
recommended that place for a location. Act- 
ing* on this advice Mr. Carver came in May 
and boug-ht a fine claim a mile south of Vernon. 
In September 1856, Brother Fall from Beloit, 
Wis., with his family, for a home in North 
Iowa, met Mr. White at McGreg-or, low^a; who 
advised him to look at Howard County, which 


he did. At Geo. Warren's he met Mr. Carver 
who proposed to fix up the cabin on his claim 
for the family. This plan was carried out 
and in the spring' of 1857 Mr. Carver became 
a member of the family, and in December 
1859, he and Mary, the oldest of the four 
daughters, were married. Mr. Carver has 
been a resident of Howard County more than 
fifty years; about fifteen years on the farm 
south of Vernon; several years in Cresco, and 
nearly thirty years on a farm joining- the town 
on the west. The Carver's are people of the 
hig-hest character, an honor and credit to any 

One of our near neighbors in Vernon was 
Mr. C. W. Sawver, who with his wife and 
family, came in February 1856, and kept the 
first hotel in town, a little log- cabin near the 
Whitman spring. It was not roomy but was 
home-like — wath a good table, clean beds and 
tidy rooms, and guests met a cheery welcome. 
Mr. Sawyer was the flour maker at the Harris 
mill many years. He enlisted in Capt. James 
H. B. Harris' Co. I, 38th Iowa Infantry in 
August 1862; w^as chosen Second Sergeant 
and served faithfully and bravely for three 
years until the end of the war. He w^as for 
eleven years the faithful and efficient deputy 
sheriff of the county. Brother and Sister 
Sawyer were exemplary Christians and mem- 


bers of the church. She died at Cresco Aug-. 
9th, 1888, and he Dec. 14th, 1902. Of the four 
daughters, Eliza married Mr. Geo. Snyder; 
Josepihne, Mr. H. Middlebrook; Carrie, Mr. 
W. G. Wildman, and Sarah, Prof. L. E. A. 

William Kellow, born in Cornwall, Eng-land, 
in 1822; came to the U. S. in 1853, and to 
Howard County in 1856. Mr. Kellow was a 
stone mason, learning- his trade in Eng-land, a 
skillful, tireless worker. He boug-ht a farm 
a mile north of Vernon, w^here himself and 
family lived for more than thirty years, sell- 
ino- to make a home in Cresco. Mr. and Mrs. 
Kellow were orig'inal members of the Vernon 
Spring-s Methodist Church, both leading- ex- 
emplary Christian lives. Mrs. Kellow died 
at Cresco, July 2nd, 1901, and he followed her 
to the better land June 3rd, 1904, in his 
eig-hty-second year, leaving- five children, 
living- of whom Joseph is now editor of the 
Cresco Republican, and William, one of 
Cresco's leading- and successful business men. 

Pour young- Eng-lishmen, Greg-ory, Alexan- 
der, Chapman and Howard Marshall, sons of 
General Anthony Marshall, a disting-uished 
officer of Eng-ineers in the British army, 
came to Howard County m 1857, and located 
in Paris township and built and occupied a 
comfortable home a few miles w^est of Vernon. 


General Anthony Marshall was born in Cam- 
bridg-e, England, in 1791; educated at the 
Military School at Woolwich, and at theag-eof 
seventeen entered the Royal service as Sec- 
ond Lieutenant of Eno-ineers. He served with 
Wellintrton throug-h the Peninsular war with 
Spain, and w^as later stationed in Eno-land, 
Ireland, Canada and at Cape Town, South 
Africa. General Marshall was much inter- 
ested in our civil war and a g-reat admirer of 
General Grant. HediedatPlymouth, Eng-land, 
in May 1865. The sons who came to Howard 
County were born, Greg-ory at St. Johns, 
New Brunswick, in 1832; Alexander at Yar- 
mouth Isle of Wig-ht, in 1834; Chapman at 
Dublin, Ireland, in 1838; Howard at Exeter, 
Eng-land, in 1840. Greg-ory after, leaving- 
school, was employed in the Eng-lish war 
office. Alexander went to sea at the ag-e of 
seventeen, and was a sailor until he came to 
Howard County. Chapman was educated at 
Plymouth, went to sea when fifteen, as an 
apprentice; was four years a sailor, being- sec- 
ond officer of the ship when he left the sea for 
life as a landsman. Howard went with his 
parents to Cork, Ireland, when six months 
old, and to Cape Town, South Africa, where 
the family remained nearly four years, Gen- 
eral Marshall being- on duty there, returning- 
to Eng-land when relieved. 


Alexander returned to Eng-land in 1865. 
Greg-ory, Chapman and Howard made their 
homes in Howard County for many years, 
with interesting- families. All were men of 
hig-h character, g-ood citizens and successful 
business men. 

Time and space forbid extension of this list 
much as we would love to continue it. John 
M. Field, Rev. P. S. Whitman, Horace Culver, 
Robert Gilcrest, Nathaniel Niles, A. H. 
Harris, M. B. Doolittle, and their families 
were early settlers and valued neig-hbors and 
friends, and w^e w^ould love to make more 
detailed notice of them. Of many families no 
member remains. Of some the living- mem- 
bers are widelv scattered. 

Chapter XI. 

During- the summer of 1858 we built a very 
comfortable stone house in Vernon Spring's, 
which was the family home for ten years. 

In the spring- of 1858 I was elected County 
Superintendent of Schools for Howard Coun- 
ty, and held the office for three years. There 
were, at the time of my election, but three 
school houses in the county, located at For- 
reston, Lime Spring's and Howard Center. 
The compensation, salary of the office, was 
Si. 50 per day for time occupied; increased to 
$2.00 the following- year, and a fee of $1.00 for 
examining- teachers, on the last Saturday of 
each month. As the pay of teachers was very 
small I did not collect from them any exami- 
nation fee. Meeting's, prayer and preaching-, 
were well attended during- the winter of 
1857-8, and the membership of the little 
church was more than doubled by spring*. 
When Brother James Watson joined in Octo- 
ber 1857, he was a young- sing-le man. Him- 
self, wife and three g-rown children are now 
members of the church. Lime Spring's was 
one of my reg-ular appointments, and in July 




■ art* 



1858, a church was org-anized with the follow- 
ing- members: 

Father Buckland and wife, Mrs. M. M. 
Marsh, Jacob Beam. Father Adams, Jones 
Adams and Hiram Hearns. 

Howard County and vicinity was our mis- 
sionary field of labor for more than thirty 

Beginning- in April 1861, for four long- 
anxious years, the subject of absorbing- inter- 
est and sleepless anxiety with all patriotic 
citizens of Howard County was the war for 
the Union. 

The first volunteer from Howard County 
for the war was my oldest son Charles, who 
immediately on the President's first call for 
troops for ninety days, joined a company or- 
g-anizing- at Decorah in Winneshiek County, 
which was mustered into the service of the 
United States for three years as Company 
D, Third Iowa Infantry. Details of his mili- 
tary life, are g-iven in a sketch appearing- 
later in this book. He was twenty years of 
ag-e at the time of his enlistment. 

In June 1862, my second son, James, then 
in his seventeenth year, enlisted in the Six- 
teenth United States Reg-ular Infantry. 

An acute and serious illness impaired his 


health to such an extent that he was dis- 
harg-ed after a few months service. 

In Aiitrust 1862, the Sioux Indians in Min- 
nesota raided the homes and villages of set- 
tlers, murdering- and mutilating- men, women 
and children, and burning- and destroying- 
a large amount of property. 

Encouraged by and taking advantage of the 
war of the Rebellion, and incited by agents of 
the Confederacy, unscrupulous and possibly 
unauthorized, and brooding- over real and 
fancied wrong's suffered in dealing- with the 
Government and its ag-ents; they took the war 
path and spread terror, death and destruc- 
tion through the southwestern part of the 

Many of their outrages occurred close to 
the Southern Minnesota border, and thous- 
ands of people abandoned their homes and 
fled for their lives into Northern Iowa. Roads 
from Minnesota were filled with terror-strick- 
en fug-itives. 

As the field of operation threatened to ex- 
tend across the border into Iowa, and some 
families in our immediate neig-hborhood were 
hastily packing- a few thing's and leaving-; a 
company was org-anized and mounted for home 
defense, armed with such weapons, rifles and 
shot guns as were available, and set out to 
meet the savag-es. 


But prompt action by Governor Ramsey 
of Minnesota, and General Sible}^ with militia 
and volunteers, speedily overpowered the 
Indians, defeating*, capturing- and punishing 

About twelve hundred Sioux Indians were 
engag-ed in the raid. Governor Ramsey esti- 
mated the loss of life among- settlers at eight 

Five hundred Indians were captured, tried 
by a Military Court, and three hundred sen- 
tenced to suffer death by hanging. Of this 
number thirty-eight were executed December 
26, 1862. 

Between twenty and thirty thousand peo- 
ple had abandoned their homes, and the loss 
of property was estimated from two and one- 
half to three million dollars. The Howard 
County company of home guards did not meet 
any Indians. 

My son, Charles P. Brown, was at this time 
Second Sergeant of Company D, Third Regi- 
ment of Iowa Infantry, and had seen more than 
a year of active service in the field. Returning 
to his home on a furlough, he reached Decorah 
by stage from McGregor on an evening, early in 
September 1862, when the panic of the Minne- 
sota settlers was at its height and the town 
and roads filled with refugees. 


Meeting at Decorah a nei<^'-hbc)r, Mr. Hum- 
phrey, a farmer livintr near the present site of 
Cresco, in town with a team and g'oing' home 
that ni^ht, my son accepted an invitation to 
accompany him on his ni^ht ride home. 
People were up and alert, lig-hts burning- at 
every house, and the welcome of a solitary 
wearer of the blue coat and brass buttons of 
Uncle Sam's uniform was inspiring-. 

His musket and cartridge box were far 
away, but the blue uniform represented the 
war power of the g-overnment, and was looked 
on as the advance guard of military protection. 

Prom Mr. Humphrey's home, shortly after 
midnight, he walked about four miles to our 
place in Vernon. The night was dark, and 
knowing the excitement and apprehension 
prevailing, he was on the watch for armed 
pickets or patrols on the road, and had there 
been any would have been in more danger 
from them than from the Indians. He found 
the roads clear and everything silent as the 
grave. Reaching home about three o'clock in 
the morning, he cautiously approached the 
house, feeling that he was liable to be mis- 
taken for an Indian and shot without challeng- 
ing. Knocking carefully at the door to avoid 
noise or excitement, and getting no re- 
sponse he was about to go to the barn and find 
a bed in the hay mow, when an upper window 


was raised and a female head in a nig-ht cap, 
with trembling- tones asked, '*Who is there?" 
His voice, thoug-h his coming* was entirely 
unexpected, was recog-nized in the reply, and 
he was speedily admitted and warmly wel- 
comed. I was away. His mother, aunt and 
cousin Julia Brown, and his young-er broth- 
ers, James, Georg-e and Will, were the occu- 
pants of the house. 

In 1863 my son Charles applied for an 
appointment for me as Chaplain of a reg-iment 
but did not succeed in g-etting- it until near the 
close of the war. Early in 1865 I went to 
Memphis, Tennessee, and served as Chaplain 
of the Eig-hty-eig-hth U. S. C. Infantry and 
later the Third U. S. C. Artillery for nearly 
a year. 

In May 1866, I came home from the army, 
my reg-iment being- mustered out of the ser- 
vice, and resumed pastoral work in Howard 

I was the teacher in the Vernon Spring-s 
public school several terms, beg-inning- in the 
fall of 1858, the last term being- that of the 
winter of 1866-7. 

My pupils, as I recall them now, were 
Emmet and James Doolittle, Ransom and 
Emory White; Adelbert, Warren, Charles and 
Josiah Marsh; Joseph, William and Samuel 
Kellow; Josephine, Carrie and Sarah Sawyer; 


Mary Webster, Luella Bowers, Cora Fields, 
Marv Tibbets, Catherine and Minnie Harris; 
Julius Doolittle, Benton Richards, Charles 
Burdick, GeorjOfe and William C. Brown. 

These are all I can recall of the fifty-seven 
who attended the last term. The names of 
those who attended previously, as I now re- 
member them, are as follows: 

John, James, Abram and Elizabeth Allen; 
Charles P. and James D. Brown; Sylvester, 
Marg-aret, Michael, James, Daniel and Jerry 
Barnes; Adelbert, William and Henry Bowers; 
Georg-e H., Henry and Isaac Culver; Elmira 
Clouse, Walter Doolittle, Adeline P. Fall, 
Arvilla and Sylvia Fall; Ella and Alice Fields, 
William Fitzg-erald, Frank and Inez Gilcrest, 
Murray and John Gilcrest, Robert Gilcrest, 
Silas and Abram Harris, Hattie, Charles and 
Samantha Hill; John and Ella Irvin, Maria 
and Mary Kellow, Fannie Moore, Louisa and 
Emma Niles, Stephen and Lydia Niles, Stone 
Neff, Marg-aret, William and Nettie Richards; 
Albert Siddall and Eliza Sawyer. 

Georg-e H. Culver enlisted with Stone Neff 
in Company "D," Third Iowa Infantry. 

Georg-e served faithfully and bravely and 
was killed before Atlanta, Georg-ia; when 
Hood assaulted Sherman's lines July 22, 
1864. Stone Neff was a g-ood soldier, but was 
too frail to stand the hardships of army life. 



His health failed and he was discharged for 
disability early in the war. 

I cannot now recall any of my scholars who 
did not become w^orthy and reputable men and 

They w^ere all good and I loved them, and 
love to recall them now\ 

The McGreg-or Western Railway Company 
was organized January 19, 1863, and con- 
struction work begun in March, and the road 
completed to Monona, 14 miles, in a year. It 
was extended to Postville and Centralia in 
1864, to Conover in 1865 and to Cresco in 1866. 

In 1867 a fifty mile gap between Cresco and 
Austin was built, making a continuous line 
from McGregor to St. Paul and Minneapolis, 
which was operated as the Iowa and Minne- 
sota Division of the Milwaukee and St. Paul 


My son Charles was employed by the con- 
tractors, Mather & G reene, from Cresco to Aus- 
tin in 1867, as time-keeper and accountant, and 
in August James began work at Cresco with 
the engineers who located the Iowa and Da- 
kota Division west from Calmar. 

In the spring of 1868 I went with Mrs. 
Brown and my younger sons, George and 
Willie, to Thompson, in Carroll County, Illi- 
nois, where I was pastor of the York Baptist 
Church for two years, returning to Iowa in 


the sprinn- of 1870, to make a home at Lime 
Si)ring-s, in Howard County. 

Durinn- this summer we erected a Baptist 
house of worship, and in 1871, I built a com- 
fortable, pleasant home for myself and family. 

My sister, Mrs. Ann B. Kelly, made her 
home with us during the summer of 1871, and 
a comfortable pleasant room was built espe- 
cially for her in the new house, but she died 
before the house was completed, and was 
buried from the log- cabin built by Esq. Marsh 
in 1855, in the old town of Lime Springs, 
which we occupied during- the construction of 
our new house. 

Chapter XII. 

In 1870 and 1871, at the time we made our 
home at Lime Springs, my sons were em- 
ployed; Charles at Ottumwa, Iowa, in the 
Internal Revenue service of the Government; 
James, George and Will all at work for the 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company; 
James with the locatinor eno-ineers on the 
Charles City Branch; Will in the trainmas- 
ter's office at Minneapolis, and Georg^e a train- 
man on line between McGreg-or and St. Paul; 
so, save for visits from the children we occu- 
pied the home alone. 

With the exception of a year, from the fall 
of 1875 to October 1876, in central New York, 
it was our home for nearly twenty years. 

I was not reg'ularly connected with any 
church as pastor during- much of this time, 
but was engag'ed in pastoral work at Lime 
Spring's, and supplying* churches in neig^hbor- 
ing* towns. 

On the evening- of September 1, 1871, my 
son George, who was brakeman on a passen- 
g-er train between St. Paul and McGregor; 
while coupling the sleeper on the train at St. 
Paul Junction, was caught between the plat- 



forms of the sleeper and rear coach, receivino- 

injuries resultinjj- in his death within an hour. 

His ei<J-hteenth birthday occurred on the 
twenty-ninth of July preceding-. His cheery, 
affectionate disposition endeared him to all, 
and his sudden trag-ic death was a dreadful 
shock and was loner and deeply mourned. 

In the fall of 1875 Mrs. Brown and myself 
went to New York and remained a year with 
relatives and old friends and acquaintances in 
Herkimer and Madison Counties. During- 
this time I supplied the churches at Russia 
and Poland in the absence of a reg-ularly in- 
stalled pastor. We w^ere with my father 
during- his last illness, at Madison, where he 
died September 23, 1876, in his eig-hty-seventh 
year, We returned to Iowa in October and 
ag-ain located at Lime Spring's, where I re- 
sumed pastorship of the church. 

In October 1877, I was elected to represent 
Howard County in the Iowa Legislature and 
served one term, declining- to be a candidate 
for re-election. 

During- the session the following- winter I 
introduced a resolution to amend the State 
Constitution so as to authorize a majority of 
a jury in civil cases to bring- in a verdict. It 
passed the House by a larg-e majority, but was 
pig-eon-holed in the Senate. 


The followino- is a brief of my arg-ument in 
support of my resolution: 

"Mr. Speaker — The proposed amendment of 
the Ninth Section, Article 1st, of the Constitution 
makes no change in our present trial jury system 
or the rules by which it is governed. It will sim- 
ply remove the constitutional obstacle in the way 
of some future legislature if it shall see fit in its 
wisdom to authorize less than a unanimous ver- 
dict. (The resolution was amended so as to con- 
fine it to civil cases.) 

I think the gentleman from Marion (Ex-Govern- 
or Wm. M. Stone) is mistaken when he says the 
rule which requires a unanimous verdict came 
down from the distant ages of the past. In the 
early history of the jury system the unanimity 
rule governing verdicts was not known. A major- 
ity of the jury was competent to deliver a verdict. 
This was the rule in England for a long series of 
years. The unanimity rule was the result of 
gradual changes in the system. It is now a rule 
peculiar to the English common law. No other 
nation on the continent of Europe has ever adopt- 
ed it. 

I offer the following reasons why this unanimity 
rule governing the verdict of juries should be 

1. The rule is unreasonable. As pertinent and 
emphatic proof of this proposition, we quote the 
language of the learned editor of Blackstone's 
Commentaries, Vol. 2, Book 2, page 375, who 
says: *The unanimity of twelve men so repug- 


nant to all experience of human conduct, passions 
and understandings could hardly in any age have 
been introduced into practice by a deliberate act 
of the legislature.' 

Hence this rule is illegitimate so far as statute 
law is concerned, too absurd, too unreasonable for 
any legislative body in any age to have deliberately 
introduced it into practice. 

It is in fact a come-by-chance, nursed by the 
English Courts until, with many other absurdities 
it became a part of her common law. 

2. The rule is utterly inconsistent with and 
subversive of the very principles which underlie 
our Republican institutions. 

Introduce this rule of unanimity into our elec- 
tions, into Congress and all departments of its bus- 
iness, into our legislative business, into our com- 
mittee business, how many bills of a general 
character would be reported and how many bills 
of a general character would pass and become 
laws? Introduce this rule into our higher courts, 
what would be the result? Cases without number 
never decided. We must decide matters, how- 
ever weighty and whatever may be the conse- 
quences, by majorities. That is the fundamental 
rule of a Republican government, of all Republi- 
can institutions. Discard this rule and the entire 
machinery comes to a disastrous standstill. 

3. Its direct and practical tendency is to pro- 
tract litigation and greatly increase its expense. 
The truth of this proposition is notoriously obvi- 
ous; so constantly corroborated by the observa- 


tion and experience of everyone, as to render 
proof or illustration unnecessary. Cases innum- 
erable have lingered in the courts for years which 
might have been decided on their first hearing if 
the verdict of eight or nine intelligent men had 
been decisive. Finally in the end court expenses 
and attorneys' fees have eaten up the judgment 
obtained and impoverished both parties to the 

4. The rule of unanimity puts into the hands of 
one man the absolute and efficient power of de- 
feating the ends of justice. It matters not wheth- 
er that one man is the personification of obstina- 
cy, stupidity, ignorance, or the most intelligent 
person in the community. No such power can 
safely be entrusted to any man. It is despotism 
on the side of crime and injustice. The unanimity 
rule has opened a field in which shrewd attorneys 
have achieved some of their most signal victories, 
not in the interest of justice and right, but in the 
interest of injustice, crime and wrong. If the 
attorney finds there is no merit in his client's 
case, and no possible hope of obtaining a verdict 
in his favor, his next object, and to compass it no 
stone is left unturned, is to divide the jury. A 
new trial is ordered and the same thing is repeated 
and the prosecution is worried and worn out and 
the guilty go free. 

And then if money is to be used to defeat the 
ends of justice, how much more easily one man 
can be corrupted than three or four, and the cor- 
ruption of one man defeats a verdict under the 


present rule, as surely as the corruption of a half 

5. It is a coercive rule, or to use a very ex- 
pressive word of American coinage, it is a bull- 
dozing rule. It provides if twelve men do not 
voluntarily agree on a verdict, to bulldoze them 
into a verdict. 

There was a time in England when the jury 
consisted of more than twelve men, and a majority 
verdict was the rule. It afterwards became the 
rule that at least twelve of the number must agree 
and if that number did not agree the jury were 
reinforced or others added to it until the requisite 
number twelve was obtained. The number of 
jurymen was diminished from time to time until it 
was cut down to twelve, and then commenced the 
unanimity rule, and about this time the courts, 
finding their business blocked by the frequent dis- 
agreement of the jury, found it necessary to resort 
to coercive measures to enforce agreement and 
obtain verdicts. The jury was locked up in a 
room without fire, food, drink or light and for any 
length of time at the pleasure of the court. The 
jury was fined if they ate anything without con- 
sent of the court before finding a verdict, and if 
the jury did not agree on a verdict by the time the 
court adjourned and was ready to leave for an- 
other part of the circuit, they were, by order of 
the court, hauled around the circuit from town 
to town in a cart. This same common law bull- 
dozing rule, except the cart part, has been in full 
force and virtue in the older states of this country, 


and that too, within the recollection of some of the 
members of the present General Assembly. 

Coercion does not necessarily imply or require 
physical force, but any influence which impels a 
person contrary to his calm, unbiased convictions. 
The barbarous means which the English courts 
resorted to to enforce unanimity, such as hunger, 
thirst, cold, darkness and jolting carts over rough 
roads, may have been set aside, but confinement 
and other potent influences, coercive in their char- 
acter, design and effect, have taken their places. 

But the most abhorrent feature of this coercing 
a verdict is, the jury is first put under the solemni- 
ties of an oath, which should shield them from all 
coercive influences in their deliberations and in 
reaching their conclusions. 

Agreement produced by such influences does not 
add strength or virtue to the verdict. 

Perhaps it will be said that in the United States 
nearly all the odious measures so generally resort- 
ed to in former times to enforce a verdict under the 
unanimity rule have been done away with. This 
may be true to a very great extent while the evil 
consequences of the absurd rule are in full force 
to defeat the ends of justice and to render litigation 
long and expensive." 

So long" as our legislative bodies are made 
up largely of lawyers it can scarcely be hoped 
that measures looking to simplifying litigation 
— expediting- and reducing cost — will meet 
with favor. 


The vear 1S77 will Ionic he rememhered as 
one of serious labor troubles — and in north- 
ern Iowa as the first of a series of disastrous 
failures of the spring- wheat crop, which had 
for years been the main dependence of our 
farmers. Many of the early settlers lost 
their farms, <^Mvino- up the strug-crle and ag-ain 
becoming- pioneers in Dakota, Nebraska and 

The wheat crop of that year, up to the time 
the berry was in the milk, or doug-h stag-e, 
was very promising-; but at this critical per- 
iod, very hot weather, with frequent showers, 
followed by a blazing- sun, cooked and blasted 
the wheat, utterly destroying- it. 

Seed and labor were lost and the brig-ht 
hopes of the husbandman blig-hted in a day. 

Chapter XIII. 

In 1879 I built a house south of the depot in 
Lime Spring's, located across the street 
from my son, James D. Brown, at that time 
station agfent at Lime Spring-s. This was our 
last earthly home, and one of the pleasantest 
we ever had. During- the following- ten 
years I had no reg-ular charge, but supplied 
the churches at Cresco, Fort Atkinson, and 
other places, which were without pastors. 

Mrs. Brown and I spent a good deal of time 
visiting- our children living- in Ottumwa, Iowa, 
and Beardstown, Illinois. In September, 
1882, an epidemic of diphtheria broke out in 
Lime Springs, and Frances, young-est daug-h- 
ter of my son James, and Eddie, the only son 
of my son Willie, whose family was at home 
on a visit, were among- the early victims of the 
dread disease. 

Many children in the villag-e and vicinity 
were smitten with the malady, and almost 
every case w^as fatal. 

It was an autumn of g-rief and sorrow for 
our family. 

On September 2, a daug-hter. Bertha Ade- 
laide, was born to W. C. and Ella H. Brown, 



and this bcihy ^i'irl was only about a week old 
when the little boy died. On the day Bertha 
was born, and in the same house, a dau^-hter 
was born to Clara Lacey, a sister of Mrs. 

On June 12, 1887, in this last of our homes, 
occurred the death of my beloved wife, and 
we laid her beside the children and ^rand 
children in the beautiful cemetery located on 
the hillside where so many of the old neig-h- 
bors and friends had preceded her. 

The funeral sermon was preached by Rev. 
J. M. Wedg-ewood. I had many years before, 
discharg-ed a similar sad duty at the funeral 
of his wife. 

For nearly fifty years she was my constant 
companion and helpmeet. 

Her cheerful, sunny disposition made itself 
felt through all these years, in the lonely 
cabin on the frontier, or the more comfortable 
home in the East. Whatever of success at- 
tended my labors in the ministry, and the 
success attained and positions of honor and 
trust g-ained by our sons, are largely due to 
the loving- care and instruction of the sainted 
wife and mother. 

For a few^ years after her death I remained 
at the home in Lime Spring's, keeping- every- 
thing so far as possible as it was left by her 
loving hands. 


Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Hewitt, old neig-hbors 
and kind friends, occupied the house with me. 
Their daughter, Ella, was the wife of my son, 
W. C. Brown. 

While it was my home, containing* many 
thing's recalling- happy days of the past, ^one 
never to return, much of my time was spent 
visiting- relatives and friends. 

With advancing- years, the rig-or of our nor- 
thern Iowa winters, felt more than in young-- 
er days, led me to make my home with my 
children living farther south. 

I write these recollections in 1893, at the 
home of my son, W. C. Brown, at St. Joseph, 
Missouri, where I have been for a larg-e part 
of the time during* the last three years- 

My sons and their families have been very 
kind and considerate, and done much to com- 
fort and cheer me in my old ag-e and loneliness. 
I praise God for His g-oodness in sparing- my 
life, and g-ranting- me the unspeakable joy of 
attending- six semi-centennial Jubilee Ser- 
vices, namely: 

The fiftieth anniversaries: 

Of the Baptist Church at Davenport, of 
which I was one of the first pastors. 

Of the Baptist Church at Danville, Iowa. 

Of the Maquoketa Church, the first one or- 
g-anized by me west of the Mississippi river. 


Of the Davenport Association, which I as- 
sisted in ort^'-anizing-. 

Of the Baptist Church in Cordova, Illinois. 

Of the Des Moines Baptist Association, the 
first west of the Mississippi and north of 

When I recall the many who were fellow 
laborers with me in the precious work a half 
century ag-o, and realize how few remain, my 
heart is filled wnth g-ratitude to God for His 
^reat merc}^ to me. 

I also realize, with cheerful confidence and 
faith in His loving- kindness, which has fol- 
lowed me all the days of my life, that the hour 
of my departure cannot be far away. 

That God will bless and in infinite love and 
tenderness overshadow and keep the beloved 
Churches with which I have been connected, 
and all the Israel of God, is my earnest daily 

At the request of my children I insert some 
papers, political and historical, which they 
deem of interest and worthy of preservation. 

These "recollections" as an autobiog-raphy 
closed in the fall of 1893, and later events are 
g-iven by a son. 

Father made his home principally with my 
brother, W. C. Brown, at St. Joseph, Mo., 
until January 1, 1896, and then in Chicag-o, 
where he was cared for w4th loving- kindness. 


In the fall of 1898 he came to Ottumwa to 
make his home with Benjamin P. Brown, his 
grandson, and remained until his death. Ben 
and his wife, Laura Kendall, were very pleas- 
ant young- people; kind, thoug-htful and con- 
siderate, and their little daug-hter. Prances, 
was a favorite with father. 

Everything- possible was done for his com- 
fort and convenience, and he was as contented 
and happy as anyone could be under similar 

Nothing- could make g-ood the loss of his 
loved and life-long companion, and he never 
ceased to miss and mourn her. 

Early in the year 1900 my brother, W. C. 
Brown, boug-ht a handsome, well located resi- 
dence in Ottumwa, expressly for father's use, 
and it was occupied by Ben and his family for 
a home for father. 

For more than a year preceding- his death, a 
capable attendant was employed, g-iving- his 
entire time to caring- for father and adminis- 
tering- to his wants. 

He was a remarkably active man for his 
age, and retained full possession of his fac- 
ulties to the day of his death. 


Rev. Charles E. Brown died in Ottumwa, 
Iowa, at the residence of his g-randson, Ben- 


jainin P. Brown, on Tuesday, July 23, 1^)01, 
in his eig-hty-ninth year, from old ag-e. 

His obituary contained the following" notice: 

"Mr. Brown was a man of more than ordi- 
nary ability, and began his active life work 
with a much better education than theaverag-e 
young man of his time. 

"His choice of a vocation came from a pro- 
found sense of duty, and he was a faithful, 
zealous and devoted worker in his calling- 
until past sixty years of ag-e. In choosing- 
fields of labor he sought those among- pioneers 
in the far West: plain, earnest people in the 
humbler walks of life, and the question of 
compensation was hardly considered. 

"Had he been ambitious he would have at- 
tained high rank in the ministry. 

"Sincere, earnest, unselfish and self-sacri- 
ficing, he was not worldly minded. 

"Clear and decided in his views on all ques- 
tions of public interest he held and advocated 
them fearlessly. 

"His ideas of life were serious; but under a 
sober, thoughtful manner, he had a warm, 
g-enerous heart, and was ever ready with 
kindly sympathy and assistance for those in 
trouble or affliction. 

"Death came in his eighty-ninth year, from 
a g-radual failing of his vital powders, and the 
end was peaceful and painless." 



His remains were laid in the cemetery at 
Lime Spring's, Iowa, by the side of those of 
his loved companion, who had g-one before to 
a better land. 

FrcDices Lyon was born April 15, 1813, at 
Oppenheim, in Pulton county, New York, the 
sixth dauofhter of Doctor Benjamin Lyon and 
Margaret Duncan, his wife. 

On July 5, 1820, her mother died, and on 
May 26, 1822, her father married again, and 
died October 24, 1826. 

Doctor Benjamin Lyon was a practicing- 
physician; educated, capable and skillful in 
his profession; of high character as a man; 
leading and influential; loved and respected 
by neighbors and friends. 

Margaret Duncan, his wife, was a daug-hter 
of John Duncan, a Scotchman of means and 
prominence, who came to New York at an 
early day and located near Schenectady, es- 
tablishing- a home, whose broad acres were 
known as the ''Hermitag-e. " 

Panny Lyon's home after her parents' 
death was for some years before her mar- 
riag-e, at Little Palls, Herkimer county. New 
York, with an older sister, Julia, wife of 
Stephen W. Brown, a leading-, influential and 
well to do merchant. 


Here, h.'Liulsoine, educated, accomplished 
and winnintf, she was prominent in the ^ay 
social life of a charmintr circle of bri^rht youn^ 
people. It was an ideal home. 

Mrs. Stephen W. Brown w^as an exception- 
ally cajKible, gifted and accomplished woman, 
and a brilliant social leader. 

Her husband was a g-entleman of the high- 
est character, popular in business and poli- 
tics, g-enial, g-enerous and hospitable, with a 
noble face and commanding- presence, larg-ely 
interested in trade and manufactures, and for 
a time ''Ilig-Ji Sherijf of Herkimer county. 

At Little Falls, in the spring- of 1838, oc- 
curred a revival of relig-ion that attracted 
widespread interest The meeting-s w^ere 
conducted by Rev. Phillip Perry Brown, an 
able, earnest and zealous Baptist minister. 

Georg-e D. Lyon, a successful young- mer- 
chant of Little Falls, unmarried and making- 
his home with his sisters, Mrs. Stephen W. 
Brown and Fanny Lyon, was a member of the 
Baptist church, and with his sister Fanny, 
attended the meeting-s. 

Charles Edwin Brown, a son of the presid- 
ing- minister, a theological student just from 
the university at Hamilton, young-, zealous, 
able and enthusiastic in his chosen calling- of 
the ministry, was present assisting- his father 
In carrying- on the work. He became a g-ue?t 


of Stephen W. Brown's family during- the 
meeting-, and was cordially received and en- 

Fanny Lyon was an interested attendant of 
the revival services, and became a convert. 

The acquaintance of the young- people thus 
thrown tog-ether, ripened into love, and g-iving- 
up a brig-ht and promising- future in a worldly 
way, she became, September 26, 1838, the wife 
of a minister, possessed of nothing- but 
health, a g-ood education, ability of a hig-h 
order, and zeal and sincerity in his calling-. 
Possibly the extent of the sacrifice was not 
fully realized. It was a life of toil, trial and 
self-denying- economy, doing- larg-ely for 
others, and looking- to the future for its re- 
ward and compensation. But it was in the 
line of duty, and its faithful performance 
broug-ht an approving- conscience. She dis- 
charg-ed all its duties loyally and well; bore 
her share of its burdens, and contributed 
fully to its joys. 

She was a consistent Christian, a devoted, 
loving- wife and mother, and a model home- 
maker; always cheerful and hopeful. 

Death came at the home in Lime Spring-s, 
Iowa, June 12, 1887, after a long- illness, borne 
with Christian patience, faith and fortitude. 

The children of Rev. Charles E. and Fran- 
ces Lyon Brown were: 


J)r)i/(if}ii)i Perry JiroivJi, l)orn in the Baptist 
parsonag-e at Norway, Herkimer county, New 
York, July 30, 1830, and was drowned at 
Brown's ford in the Ma([uoketa river, near 
Maquoketa, Iowa, on the afternoon of June 20, 
1848, when nearly nine years of a«-e. 

He was in many lovable ways a remarkable 
little fellow, ])ritrht and playful, but thoutrht- 
ful and considerate, conscientious and of a de- 
votional turn of mind, unusual for a child. 
He won and held the warmest love of his par- 
ents. A most promising- life was cut short 
by his untimely death. 

His loss was a crushing- blow to his parents, 
and his mother never ceased to mourn him to 
the end of her long- life. 

Sketch of Charles Perry Brozvn, published 
in a ^'Biog-raphical History of Wapello Coun- 
ty," at Ottumwa, Iowa, in 1901. 

"Captain Charles P. Brown was born near 
Little Palls, Herkimer county, New York, 
October 30, 1840, the son of Rev. Charles E. 
and Prances Lyon-Brown. 

"His father was a Baptist minister, a g-rad- 
uate of Madison University, who came to Iowa 
in May, 1842, as a Missionary by appointment 
from the American Baptist Home Mission 
Society, locating- first at Maquoketa, Jackson 
county, and the following- fall at Davenport. 
After nine years of arduous and successful 


labor in his calling-, failing- health necessitated 
his return to New York in May, 1851, where 
he spent six years in central and western 
counties, returning to Iowa in July, 1857, to 
make a home, in Howard county. 

"Captain Brown's mother, a noble Christ- 
ian woman, and a devoted, loving- wife and 
mother, was a daughter of Doctor Benjamin 
Lyon, of Herkimer county. New York, whose 
wife, Mrs. Brown's mother, was Margaret 
Duncan, daughter of John Duncan, a promi- 
nent Scotchman, who left his native land on 
account of political disturbances, and settled 
near Schenectady, New York, at an early day. 
*-The subject of this sketch was educated 
in the common schools of New York and Iowa, 
and was a teacher in country district schools 
in northern Iowa during the winter terms of 
1859, 1860 and 1861. He was the first volun- 
teer from Howard county for the Civil war, 
enlisting- about April 20, 1861, in the Decorah 
Guards, a Winneshiek county company, which 
was mustered into the service of the United 
States as Company D, Third reg-iment, Iowa 
Volunteer Infantry, at Keokuk, Iowa. The 
First, Second and Third reg-iments of Iowa 
Infantry were organized at Keokuk about the 
same time, all being there together before 
any left for the field. 

"At the organization of his company, Mr. 


Brown was elected third corporal, and in 
March, 18()2, was promoted to second ser- 
g-eant. He was made first lieutenant of artil- 
lery in May, 18()3, and in September, 1864, 
was appointed captain and assistant adjutant 
o-eneral of volunteers by President Lincoln, 
holdintr that position until discharged in Dec- 
ember, 1865. He served continuously from 
April 25, 1861, until December 31, 1865, four 
years and ei^ht months, when he was honor- 
ably discharofed by order of the War Depart- 
ment, for the reason that his services were 
no long-er required. He was on staff duty 
about four years, as regimental and brig-ade 
quartermaster, aide-de-camp, and assistant 
adjutant g-eneral, serving- more than a year 
with Major General Stephen A. Hurlbut, who 
commanded the Fourth Division, Army of the 
Tennessee, at Pittsburg* Landing-, Shiloh and 
Corinth, and later the Sixteenth Army Corps, 
and the Department of the Gulf. He was in 
every battle and campaign in which his com- 
mand was eng-ag-ed. 

"After leaving- the army. Captain Brown re- 
turned to his home in Vernon Spring's, How- 
ard county, Iowa; and was married Aug-ust 30, 
1866, to Adeline Fall, daug-hter of Rev. Georg-e 
W. Fall, of Howard county. He came to Ot- 
tumwa, March 1, 1871, as clerk in the office of 
General John M. Hedrick, supervisor of 


United States internal revenue for a district 
comprising- eig^ht northwestern states and ter- 
ritories, and was soon after appointed United 
States Internal Revenue Ag-ent on the recom- 
mendation of General liedrick, and served in 
that capacity until October, 1881, resig-ning- 
on account of failing- health. The Ottumwa 
National Bank was then org-anizing- and Cap- 
tain Brown was oifered and accepted the posi- 
tion of cashier. In Aug-ust, 1883, he left the 
bank to become auditor of the coal mining-, 
railroad and supply companies owned and op- 
erated by J. C. Osg-ood. This work proving- 
too arduous, was g-iven up in July, 1884, and 
for three years he w'as out of business. In 
the fall of 1887 Mr. Brown org-anized the Ot- 
tumwa Saving-s Bank, and was its president 
until Aug-ust, 1895, when the condition of his 
health obliged him to g-ive up all business for 
a time. 

'*Mr. and Mrs. Brown have two children liv- 
ing-: Benjamin P., born at McGreg-or, Iowa, 
December 11, 1869, and Louise P. born at Ot- 
tumw^a, Iowa, January 28, 1881, both of whom 
w^ere educated in the public schools of Ot- 
tumwa. Benjamin P. went into the retail 
hardware store of the Harper and Mclntire 
Company; then Harper, Chambers and Com- 
pany, in May, 1886, to learn the business. In 
September, 1888, he began work in the Ot- 


tumwa Savini^s Bank; was made assistant 
cashier in 18*)1, and cashier in August, 1895. 
He is a popular, capable and successful bank- 

JiiDics DcGrush Dnnvii was born in Le- 
Claire township, Scott county, Iowa, Feb- 
ruary 9, 1846, in a brick house on the prairie, 
a few miles west of the Mississippi river and 
the village of LeClaire. 

The country was new and thinly settled, 
the nearest neio-hbor being- one-half mile to 
the south. North, east and west was the 
boundless prairie, without human habitation 
in sio-ht. Wolves howledaround thehouseand 
came almost to our door nearly every nig-ht. 
Prairie chickens were plentiful; larg-e flocks 
used to g*ather, and the males strut about and 
sound their booming- notes in plain sig-ht of, 
and near the house, and a fat young- hen for a 
meal was almost as handy to g-et as a fowl 
from a domestic barn yard. Indians were oc- 
casional visitors. 

James was a dutiful, obedient boy, of cor- 
rect and studious habits, a ready learner, and 
a great reader of books, with a g-ood 
memory. Considering- his limited opportu- 
nities, his education w^as better than that of 
any of his brothers. 

He was a school teacher in country districts 
in north Iowa a few terms; and in 1867 beg-an 



work for the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway 
Company with the locating- eng-ineers on the 
Iowa and Dakota Dixision. Later he was op- 
erator at various stations on the Iowa and 
Minnesota Division, and ag-ent at Lime 
Spring's for about fifteen years. 

He came to the "Burling-ton" road Febru- 
ary 1, 1889, as ag-ent at Fairfield, and to Ot- 
tumwa April 1, 1890. 

June 1, 1903, he became traveling- freig-ht 
ag-ent for the Indiana, Iowa and Illinois Rail- 
way Company; and in the fall of 1905, g-eneral 
ag-ent at St. Joseph, Missouri, for the New 
York Central lines. 

James was always a capable, trusty and 
faithful worker in all the positions he held. 

In 1862, he enlisted in the Sixteenth United 
States Reg-ular Infantry, when but sixteen 
years of ag-e. An acute and serious illness, 
unfitting- him for service, caused his discharg-e 
for disability a few^ months later; to his very 
great disappointment and reg-ret. 

Georg-e Lyon Brozv7i was born in the Bap- 
tist parsonag-e at Norway, Herkimer county. 
New York, July 29, 1853. The family home 
was located at Vernon Spring-s, Howard coun- 
ty, Iowa, in July 1857. 

Georg-e was an active, wide awake, enter- 
prising- boy, loving-, considerate and helpful to 
his mother; of a cheerful, kindly and oblig-ing- 


disposition, seldom at variance with his play- 

His first work away from home was as a 
trainman on the Chicag^o, Milwaukee and St. 
Paul, between McGrej^-or and Minneapolis, as 
brakeman on a frei<ifht, and later on a passen- 
g-er train, beg-in nino- in 1870. He was in- 
dustrious and trusty, interested and ambi- 
tious, readily g-aini no- the g-ood will, confidence 
and respect of his employers, and success 
and promotion in his life w^ork was a reason- 
able expectation. 

On the evening- of September 1, 1871, while 
coupling- the sleeping- car "Minnesota" on the 
train at St. Paul Junction, he was caught be- 
tw^een the platforms of the sleeper and the 
rear coach, number seventy-seven, receiv- 
ing- injuries resultinor in his death within an 

The railway company's report of the acci- 
dent, says: 

"Georg-e L. Brown, brakeman, killed on the 
evening- of September 1, 1871, at about 7:27. 
Train No. 4, W. M. Bryant, conductor, Eng-ine 
No. 41, B. H. Lewis, eng-ineer, arrived at St. 
Paul Junction, when in making- the coupling- 
between Coach No. 77, and the sleeping- car 
"Minnesota," he was caug-ht between the 
coaches. We helped him on the platform, and 
put him on train No. 25 for Minneapolis. He 


MRS. CHAS. P. BROWN. 1871. CHAS. P, BROWN, 1863. 












































died on train 25, in coach No. 24, about fifteen 
minutes after the accident occurred. 

The coaches were backed up once and he 
didn't make the couplinof, and sig-naled the 
eng-ineer to g-o ahead and back up ag-ain. 

When the coaches came tog-ether, the draft 
irons slipped by, and caug-ht him between the 
platforms. He had made the same coupling- 
repeatedly, and thoug-ht he could do it then." 

This extract is from the report of Con- 
ductor Bryant to the company. 

Georg-e made friends of all with whom he 
was associated, and his trag-ic and untimely 
death was a dreadful shock, and was long- and 
deeply mourned by his family and friends. 

William Carlos Brown, (and his twin broth- 
er Georg-e L.) was born at the Baptist parson- 
ag-e in the little town of Norway, in Herkimer 
county, New York, on the 2^Hh day of July, 
1853, on the southern border of the Great 
North Woods, the Adirondack Wilderness. 

For the ensuing- four years the parental 
home was in central and western New York; 
in Norw^ay, until September, 1854; then in 
Penner, Madison county, until May, 1856; then 
in Gaines and Murray, Orleans county, until 
July, 1857, when it was removed to Iowa and 
established at Vernon Spring-s. in Howard 


vVside fioiii home instruction, his education 
was acijuired in common schools. 

The l)Ovs were inse])arable com])anions, 
never havintr any serious differences or mis- 
understandino;s. They were more active, en- 
terprisintr and mischievous than the averag^e 
l^ovs, and at the same time, dutiful, obedient 
and helpful about home, and affectionate and 
considerate to their mother. 

Will was especially devoted to his mother, 
and had a way of demon strati no- his affection, 
always dear to a mother's heart, that won her 
warmest love. 

She was very proud of her twin boys, and 
devotedly attached to them; and they were 
exceptionally bri<^-ht and interesting- little 

As soon as they were able to be useful, they 
cheerfully bore their share of the burden of a 
home, where means w^ere limited, and a mod- 
est living- had to be secured by industry and 
economy; and were always ready to add to the 
family comfort and income by earning- some- 
thing- whenever an opportunity presented. 

W. C. Brown's railroad life and work beg-an 
in the little town of Thompson, Illinois, where, 
in 1868 and 18()9, he was employed wooding- 
eng-ines; and later on the section on the old 
Western Union, now^ a part of the Chicag-o, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul system. 


During" the time in this employment, he de- 
voted his evenings to learning- telegraphy, and 
in the spring- of 1870, became operator at 
Charles City, on the Iowa and Dakota Division 
of the Milwaukee and St. Paul road; was oper- 
ator at various stations on the line in Iowa 
and Minnesota, until the spring- of 1871, when 
he w^as made nig-ht operator in the Train Dis- 
patcher's office at Minneapolis. 

In June, 1872, he went to the Iowa Division 
of the Illinois Central road as train dispatcher 
at Waterloo; and in March, 1875, to Wilton 
Junction as dispatcher for the Chicag-o, Rock 
Island and Pacific Railway until July 1, 1876, 
when he accepted a similar position on the 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad at 

For twenty-five years, from July 1, 1876,^ 
until June 30, 1901, he was connected with the 

He reported for duty at Ottumwa, Iowa, go- 
ingf to Burlington in a fortnig-ht; was dis- 
patcher at Burling-ton from July, 1876, until 
January 1, 1880. 

Chief Dispatcher, St. Louis Division, at 
Beardstown, Illinois, January 1, 1880, to Jan- 
uary, 1881. 

Trainmaster, St. Louis Division, at Beards- 
town, January, 1881 to July, 1884. 

Assistant Superintendent, St. Louis Divi- 


sion, at BL'.'irdstown, July, 18S4, to January 
1, 1887. 

Superintendent, Iowa lines, at Burlin^^ton, 
January 1, 1887, to Auo-ust, 1890. 

General Manag-er of the Missouri lines of 
the Burlington System, Aug-ust, 1890, to Jan- 
uary 1, 189G, with headquarters at St. Joseph, 

General Manao-er, Chica^fo, Burlin^fton and 
Quincy Railroad, at Chica.o-o, January 1, 1896, 
to June 30, 1901. 

His connection with the New York Central 
beo-an July 1, 1901; when he went to Cleveland, 
as vice president and g-eneral manag-er of the 
Lake Shore and Michig-an Southern, and Lake 
Erie and Western Railways. 

In February, 1902, he w^as made vice presi- 
dent of the New York Central and Hudson 
River Railroad. In February, 1905, oper- 
ating- vice president: and on June 1, 1906, sen- 
ior vice president of the New York Central 
Lines, comprising-. 

The New York Central and Hudson River, 
Lake Shore and Michig-an Southern, 
Michig-an Central, 
West Shore, 

Lake Erie and Western, 
New York and Ottawa, 

Indiana, Illinois and Iowa, 


Cleveland, Chicag-o, Cincinnati and St. Louis, 
Lake Erie, Alliance and Wheeling-, and 
The Chicag-o, Indiana and Southern. 
About twelve thousand miles of the finest 
and most important railway system on earth. 
The Ottumwa Courier, referring- to his pro- 
motion to the position of g-eneral manag-er of 
the Burling-ton, said: 

"There are a few especial reasons for Gen- 
eral Manag-er Brown's success. He took what- 
ever duties were assig-ned to him, and g-ave 
Ihem his very best effort. He never scorned 
any task, however humble, the drudgery of 
which would have caused other men to resig-n. 
"His methods have always been clean and 
honest, and his treatment of the public and 
subordinates, has been based on exactly the 
same candor and courtesy accorded to his su- 
periors in rank. The story of his life reads 
like a romance, and in it there is the g-reatest 
incentive to youth for hard work, intellig-ent 
effort and clean methods in whatever they 

Referring- to his appointment as vice presi- 
dent of the New York Central and Hudson 
River road in February, 1902; the New York 
World, in a first pag-e article, said: 

"Anew railroad wizard, takes place of g-reat 
power and prominence here. 

"A radical chancre in the manag-ement of the 


New York Central was made yesterday, by 
the election of William C. Brown, now vice 
president of the Lake Shore, as vice presi- 
dent of the Central, with new duties on a 
larg-er scale, than any New York Central Rail- 
road official has ever yet assumed. 

"Mr. Brown becomes the active directing- 
and responsible head of the combined trans- 
portation, eng-ineerin^, equipment, and me- 
chanical departments of the road. 

''His position will be of more individual im- 
portance and responsibility, than any that has 
yet existed on any g-reat railroad system. 

"Mr. Brown, who now becomes one of the 
foremost men in the eastern railway field, has 
worked his way up from the very bottom. 

"He will retain the vice presidency of the 
Lake Shore, and Lake Erie and Western." 

With executive and administrative ability 
of the highest order; he combines untiring- in- 
dustry, patience and g-ood nature that nothing- 
can ruffle or disturb; unswerving- fidelity to 
his duties, and the rare and priceless faculty 
of g-aining- and keeping- the g-ood will of pat- 
rons; and the love, respect and loyal support 
of employes and subordinates of the roads. 

Modest, unassuming-, g-enial and approach- 
able, with no pride of position or power, he is 
a remarkable man of a marvelous ag-e. 

Roads under his management are notably 


free from accidents and labor troubles. 

Mr. Brown is domestic in his tastes, and 
his home life is ideal. 

He was married at Lime Spring-s, Howard 
county, Iowa, June 3, 1874; to Miss Mary Ella 
Hewitt, daug-hter of C. C. and Mary Chees- 
boro Hewitt. Mr. Hewitt was a hardware 
merchant, a hig-hly respected, successful bus- 
iness man. It is no flattery to say that Miss 
Hewitt was the belle and beauty of the little 
town, and that she is a model wife, mother 
and home-maker. 

Mr. and Mrs. Brown have three daug-hters, 
of w^hom any parents may be proud. Two 
are married and have handsome homes near 
their parents. 

Georg"ia, the eldest; refined, educated and 
accomplished, is the wife of Dr. Prank Ellis 
Pierce, a rising- young* physician, and a very 
pleasant g-entleman, son of Hon. John H. 
Pierce, of Kewanee, Illinois; a leading- manu- 
facturer and prominent in public affairs of 
the state. 

Bertha, a charming- little woman; fair-faced, 
brig-ht-eyed, lovable and winning, is the wife 
of Dr. Kellog-g- Speed; just entering- upon a 
promising- career in his profession. 

Marg'aret, the young-est, at home; trim, 
compact, g-raceful and vivacious; a very brig-ht 
little miss of sixteen, is a fine equestrian. 


and the comrade, companion and pride of her 

He has a ho)ish love for all ^ood kinds of 
fun, appreciates and enjoys a joke, and knows 
how to make one; likes a farm, and fine stock, 
horses and cattle, of which he is a judg-e and 
always has a goodly number. 

At home and off duty he is a generous host, 
a welcome t^-uest, a g^enial companion, and the 
center of a fascinating* circle of friends. 

Since his appointment as senior vice pres- 
ident of the New York Central lines, his head- 
quarters, office and home are located in New^ 
York City. 




"The document which has just been read in 
our hearing- is called 'The Declaration of In- 
dependence.' The committee appointed by 
the Continental Congress assembled in Inde- 
pendence Hall, in the city of Philadelphia, to 
draw up that declaration, consisted of Thomas 
Jefferson, of Virginia; John Adams, of Massa- 
chusetts; Benjamin Franklin, of Pennsylva- 
nia; Roger Sherman, of Connecticut; and Rob- 
ert R. Livingston, of New York. Jefferson 
was the author. The vote was taken on its 
adoption July 4, 1776, at about mid-day; a time 
of intense solemnity and interest. The decla- 
ration was read at the head of each brigade of 
the army; it was read from the pulpit; it was 
read in leg-islative halls, and at the corners of 



the streets, and ev^erywhere met with a warm 
response from the American people. 

In that noblest of all state papers ever 
issued from a le^^islative body, is this memor- 
able lang^uagfe, developing* principles most no- 
ble and o-lorious, cherished with the warm- 
est and most ardent affection by every 
true American heart. Principles upon which 
the superstructure of our g'overnment was 
reared and upon which it still rests, viz: "We 
hold these truths to be self-evident, that all 
men are created equal; that they are endowed 
by their Creator with certain unalienable 
rig"hts; that among" these are life, liberty and 
the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these 
rig"hts g-overnments are instituted among- men, 
deriving their just powers from the consent of 
the governed." A similar sentiment was ex- 
pressed many centuries before the Declara- 
tion of Independence came into being-, and 
comes to us under the sanction of Divine reve- 
lation in these words, "He hath made of one 
blood all nations of men to dwell on all the 
face of the earth." 

The Bible and the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, know no royal blood, no ordinate and 
subordinate conditions of men as they come 
from the hand^of their Creator. One declares 
that "of one blood all men were made," the 
other that "all men are created equal and en- 


dowed by the Creator with certain inalien- 
able rig-hts, among- which is that of liberty." 

In the first place let us g-lance briefly at the 
nature of personal liberty. 

Very incorrect and absurd notions are en- 
tertained in reference to personal liberty, 
some supposing- it to consist in every person 
doing- what he pleases without reg-ard for 
the rig-hts, interests and happiness of others; 
without reg-ard for society. While others 
think that personal liberty is sufficiently ample 
if their fellow men have the liberty to think 
only as they think, and to do what they choose 
to have them do. Both of these views are rad- 
ically wrong- and equally destructive of every 
principal of true personal liberty. 

"Every human being-," says a philosopher 
of our own country, **is by his constitution a 
separate distinct and complete system, 
adapted to all the purposes of self government 
and responsible to God for the manner in 
which his powers are employed." 

Every person has a perfect rig-ht, so far as 
his fellow men are concerned, to use his lib- 
erty as he pleases; provided, always, he does 
not use it to the injury of his neig-hbors; he 
may g-o where he pleases and when he pleases 
and come when he will; he may work, play or 
be idle, just as suits him best. If he sur- 


renders anv of his personal ri<»"hts it must he 
with his uncoerced consent. 

As, for instance, in the formation and whole- 
some provisions of society, the members 
mutually and on the' principles of reciprocity 
surrender some of their personal rig-hts to 
society which is essential to its very exist- 
ence. 1. The person transfers to society 
the ri^^ht of self-protection. 2. He trans- 
fers the riu'ht to redress his wrono-s or in- 

On the other hand, society eng-ag-es to pro- 
tect him in the innocent enjoyment of his 
rig-hts and redress his wrong's. Hence rt 
is wrong- for a person or persons to take re- 
dress into their own hands. Should such a 
course be g'enerally adopted society would 
soon come to an end. If, for any cause, so- 
ciety fails to perform its part of the contract, 
it is the duty and privileg^e of the person to 
fall back on his origfinal rig-hts and protect 
himself and redress his own wrong-s. Such 
cases have occurred in this w^estern country, 
where horse thieves, counterfeiters and rob- 
bers have leag'ued tog-ether for protection in 
their intolerable depredations, so that the 
ends of law and justice were constantly and 
effectually defied. Under such circumstan- 
ces it is rig-ht for the outrag-ed neig-hbors 
to do as they sometimes have done — take re- 


dress into their own hands; not, however, un- 
til they have found by actual trial, that the 
laws cannot, or will not, protect them. 

Personal liberty may be violated: 1. In 
cases where one person assumes control of 
the actions, physical and intellectual, of an- 
other. This point is so clear as to need no 
illustration. 2. Society may violate personal 
liberty by imprisonment, or by reducing- to 
vassalage, where no crime has been commit- 
ted; or where crime has been committed, 
by inflicting- punishment without giving the 
accused a fair trial; or by passing laws dis- 
franchising a person or persons; or placing 
them under civil or political disabilities; or 
by restricting or coercing their religious faith 
and forms of worship. 

Each and every person, so far as his fellow 
men are concerned, has a perfect right to be- 
lieve what he has a mind to; to w^orship what, 
and in w^hat form he is disposed to; provided, 
he leaves the same right to others unimpaired, 
and none must molest or make him afraid. 
To connect church with state, or establish a 
specified form of religion by law is a gross 
and palpable violation of the most sacred 
rights of men and should be sternly and per- 
sistently resisted. 

To secure these rights the Declaration tells 
us governments are instituted among men, 


dcriviiij^- tlu'ir just ])()\VL'rs from the consent 
of the <roverned; whenever a form of jrovern- 
ment becomes destructive of these ends, it is 
the rio-ht of the people to alter or abolish it 
and to institute a new g-overnment, laying its 
foundation on such principles and or^anizin^ 
its ]iower in such forms as to them shall seem 
most likely to effect their safety and happiness. 

These, we repeat, are the g-lorious prin- 
ciples upon which the constitution of our g-ov- 
ernment was formed. Our law^ makers are 
the servants of the people; agents appointed 
by the people. The executive is the servant 
of the people. He occupies the executive 
chair because the people put him there. If 
they think best, he is left out and another is 
elected to fill his place. The people are the 
sovereigns of the land. 

In no country are the principles of liberty 
so well understood, so well defined, so amply 
enjoyed as in our own highly favored republic. 
And it devolves upon us, fellow citizens, to 
maintain and guard most scrupulously these 
principles and transmit them, to cheer and 
bless those who shall occupy our places in 
generations yet to come. 

Let us now turn our attention to the begin- 
ning, the gradual development and consum- 
mation of those principles of liberty we now 
enjoy. There was first the dawning, then the 


twilig-ht then the meridian blaze of a g^lorious 
day. Great principles, either of physics or 
morals, political economy or human rig-hts 
and human liberty are not developed and 
broug-ht to perfection at once, but are the 
work of time. Old and venerated forms, cus- 
toms and institutions must be removed; long* 
standing- and deep rooted prejudices must be 
overcome; new and startling- ideas and princi- 
ples introduced. 

When Patrick Henry made his impassioned 
appeal in behalf of American freedom before 
the House of Burg-esses of Virg-inia, in which 
occurs that immortal exclamation, '*Give me 
liberty or give me death," the eloquent speech 
was g-reeted with cries of "Treason" from 
different parts of the hall. 

The resolution offered in the Continental 
Cong-ress, "That these united colonies are, 
and of rig-ht oug-ht to be free and independent 
states; that they are absolved from all alleg-- 
iance to the British crown," etc., was treason. 

Before America w-as discovered, the idea 
that the people had some rig-hts beg-an to be 
entertained. It was the violation of these im- 
perfectly conceived rig-hts, the intolerable op- 
pression, political and relig-ious, that drove 
the first settlers of America from their homes 
in the Old World, from friends and every en- 
deared association, to find a resting- place, an 


asvliini of the perseciiti'd and oppressed in a 
far off wilderness country, inhabitated by 
beasts of prey and sava<re tribes; where they 
were exposed to hardships and sufferings of 
the most appallinj^*- character, for which, how- 
ever, they felt themselves amply compensated 
by the sweets of liberty enjoyed in their new 

The following- indig-nant reply of Colonel 
Barre to Charles Townsend in the British 
Parliament in the days of the American Rev- 
olution, contains the truth. Referring- to the 
American colonies, he says, "Children planted 
by your care!" "No, your oppression planted 
them in America; they fled from your tyranny 
into a then uncultivated land, where they were 
exposed to all the hardships to which human 
nature is liable, and among- others, to the cru- 
elties of a savag-e foe. And yet, actuated by 
principles of true Eng-lish liberty, they met 
all these hardships with pleasure." The 
principles of liberty were broug-ht by the 
Pilg-rims to the New World, in an imper- 
fectly conceived, crude and unformed state. 

Monarchy had no motive to emig-rate to the 
wilds of America; priestcraft did not come; 
they were present only in shadow. By the 
steadfast attractions of interest, monarchy 
and priestcraft were retained in the Old 
World. To the forests of America came a 


free people; to the forests of America relig-ion 
came as a companion to cheer and comfort in 
the midst of trials and snfFerino-s. It is true 
the principles of liberty were but imperfectly 
developed and understood by the Pilgrim 
fathers. Their views of religious liberty 
were less correct than those of civil liberty. 
They supposed the people ought to be com- 
pelled to go to meeting by civil law; that the 
institutions of the Gospel should be supported 
by a legalized tax upon the people, and that 
this tax should go to support a particular 
church and denomination, and that orthodoxy 
should be looked after and protected by the 
civil magistrates and heresy severly punished 
by the officers of justice. 

It was for opposing these relics of tyranny 
and oppression that Roger Williams was ban- 
ished from the colony of Massachusetts in the 
dead of a New England winter. For fourteen 
weeks he was sorely tossed in a bitter season, 
not knowing what bed or bread did mean. 
Often in a stormy night he had neither fire, 
food or company; often he wandered without a 
guide and had no shelter but a hollow tree. 
But he was not without friends The same 
scrupulous respect for the rights of others, 
which led him to defend the freedom of con- 
science, made him the friend and champion 
of the Indians, and thus secured their most 


cordial attachment. Williams had often been 
the welcome ^uest of the neitj;-hborincr chiefs 
before his exile; and now when he came, in 
winter, a lone wanderer from oppression, to 
the cabin of the chief of Pokanoket he was 
welcomed by Massasoit, and the barbarous 
heart of Canonicus, the chief of the Narra- 
g-ansetts, loved him, as expressed in the lan- 
g-uaofe of the times, "as his son to the last 

The place where he finally fixed his habita- 
tion to express his o-ratitude for, and his con- 
fidence in the protection and mercies of God, 
he called Providence. "I desire," said he, 
"it mig-ht be for a shelter for persons dis- 
tressed for conscience." 

No one, said Williams, should be compelled 
to w^orship, or maintain a worship a,«-ainst his 
own consent. 

"What!" exclaimed his antag-onist, amazed 
at his strang-e tenents, "Is not the laborer 
worthy of his hire?" "Yes, from them that 
hire him. " 

Williams asserted that the magistrates are 
but the agents of the people, or their trustees 
on whom no spiritual power could be con- 
ferred, since conscience belong-s to the indi- 
vidual and is not the property of the body 
politic. The magistrates were selected ex- 
clusively from the members of the church ac- 


cording- to law. Williams contended that with 
equal propriety a doctor of physics or a pilot 
should be selected for his skill in theolog-y or 
standing- in the church. 

Another champion for liberty in those early 
times was William Penn, the pioneer of the 
State that bears his name. As an expression 
and memorial of the principles and feeling's 
he cherished, and, so far as he could, infused 
into those around him, he named the city 
which he founded, Philadelphia, or the City 
of Brotherly Love. 

In an address to the people of the colony, 
he expressed his opinion of liberty and what 
the people mig-ht expect. "I hope," says 
Penn, "you will not be troubled at your 
chang-e and the king-'s choice, for you are now 
fixed at the mercy of no g-overnor who comes 
to make his fortune g-reat. You shall be g-ov- 
erned by laws of your own making- and live a 
free, and if you will, a sober and industrious 
people. I shall not usurp the rig-ht of any or 
oppress his person." 

Speaking- of his colony, he says, "A free 
colony for all mankind." 

This spirit of liberty broug-ht by the early 
settlers to the New World was cherished and 
increased until it lig-hted up a torch that made 
tyranny, despotism and oppression quail and 
hasten from the land of freedom. 


But wc ]):iss to those scciu's more closely 
connected with the Revolution. For more 
than one hundred yeiirs after the first settle- 
ment of the ^American colonies, the British 
ofovernment manifested but little interest in 
their prosperity or welfare, althoui;-h the col- 
onies were continually harassed by hostile 
Indian tribes, their houses burned, their 
farms pillao-ed and laid w^aste, their families 
butchered or carried into barbarous and hope- 
less captivity. When the colonies, by perse- 
vering industry, laboring- under every disad- 
vantage, arrived at a state of prosperity and 
importance that attracted the attention of 
European governments, then the insatiable 
avarice of the British Parliament caused it to 
manifest much professed interest in the pros- 
perity of the American colonies, but this con- 
cern was purely selfish as the sequel clearly 

The language of Colonel Barre in reply to 
Townsend on this point is most eloquent and 
just. "They nourished by your indulgence! 
No. Thev grew by your neglect. When you 
began to care for them, that care was exer- 
cised in sending persons to rule over them, to 
spy out their liberty, to misrepresent their 
actions and to prey upon their substance." 

The oppressive measures of the British 
Parliament which excited resistance and 


formed the spirit of liberty in the American 
people commenced as far back as 1664. Par- 
liament reg-arded the people of the colonies as 
an inferior g-rade of his Majesty's subjects, 
dependent upon his will, and to be made at all 
hazard subservient to the ag-g-randizement of 
the British crown. Parliament, by certain 
leo-islative acts, confined the American trade 
almost exclusively to the mother country. To 
benefit her own citizens the government pro- 
hibited in many instances the establishment 
of manufactories in the colonies. These op- 
pressive and unjust restrictions and prohi- 
bitions were in their effect most prejudicial 
to the interest and welfare of New Eng-land, 
as the natural sterility of the soil offered but 
poor inducements to ag-ricultural pursuits. 

Next a law was passed imposing- duties on 
certain articles of merchandise to be paid in 
the colonial ports. This was done to extort 
revenue from the people of the colonies for 
support of the home government. 

Soon followed the infamous Stamp Act, by 
which the people were compelled to use 
stamped papers furnished by the government, 
for which they were oblig-ed to pay an ex- 
horbitant price. All deeds, contracts and the 
like not written on this stamped paper, were 
null and void. Further, a law was passed 
providing for the trial and punishment of any 


violation ol tln'su unjust and oppressive en- 
actments, without juries — l)y jud<jfes entirely 
dependent on the crown. 

It was on the passa<^e of the Stamp Act that 
Franklin, who was at the time in London, 
wrote home to Mr. Thompson, an ardent 
friend of liberty in the city of Philadelphia — 
"The sun of liberty is set. You must lig-ht 
the candles of industry and economy." "Be 
assured," was the reply, "we shall lig'ht up 
torches of quite another sort." 

The colonies remonstrated and petitioned 
against these acts of injustice in respectful 
yet most decided lang-uag-e, but to very little 
effect. However, at the instance of the cele-. 
brated Pitt, the Stamp Act was repealed. 
Other odious laws were left in full force. 

Then a law was passed imposing- a tax on 
glass and teas taken to America. The people 
became convinced that it was the settled pur- 
pose of the British government to tax them, 
and to which they must submit and become 
the vassals of England, or resist unto blood 
these aggressions upon their rights. Little 
time was required to decide the momentous 
question. "Liberty or death," was the re- 
sponse. So ardently were the people attached 
to liberty and so resolute in resisting the 
steady encroachments of injustice and tyran- 
ny, all, rich and poor, young and old, men and 


women, abandoned the use of tea entirely, and 
swept the beverage from their tables. About 
this time a ship arrived in Boston harbor, 
f reig-hted with tea. The citizens at once g-ave 
the captain to understand that he conld quiet- 
ly leave the harbor with his vessel and its con- 
tents, provided he set sail within a specified 
time. Not heeding- this admonition, about 
twenty persons, disg-uised as Mohawk In- 
dians, boarded the ship and, protected by the 
citizens, broke open three hundred and forty- 
two boxes of tea and poured the contents into 

the sea. 

This act highly exasperated the British 
Parliament and their object now w^as to in- 
flict punishment upon their refractory sub- 
jects. Various and oppressive measures were 
resorted to, to subdue the rebellious, but the 
only effect, so far as the people of the colonies 
were concerned, was to extend and fan the 
flame of liberty and consolidate the spirit of 
resistance, and streng-then the determination 
to resist unto blood and death these ag-g-res- 
sions of the home g-overnment. 

The 19th of April, 1775, is memorable in 
the annals of the long- strug-g-le for independ- 
ence as being- the day upon which the first 
battle was foug-ht at Lexing-ton, between the 
British and Americans. On the w^hole the re- 
sult was in favor of freedom. The news 


s])re.'ul rapidh throiij^h the countrx'; peo- 
])le were e\ erxwhere intensely excited; the 
fiirnier left his ])1()\\, the mechanic his 
tools, tiie la\v\er his hooks, the merchant 
his j^-oods, and hastened to the scene of action. 
Thus commenced the stru<^ofle which lasted 
for seven lonof years, attended by hardships, 
privations, snfferino- and bloodshed, of which 
we can have but faint conception, and which 
ended only when Great Britain declared to 
the world, America is free. 

Soon followed the battle of Bunker Hill, in 
which the enemy, thou^'h with double the 
numbers of men, were twice repulsed with 
dreadful lo-ss and only succeeded in drivino- 
the Americans from their post when ammuni- 
tion was exhausted and nothing- left by which 
to defend themselves but empty muskets. 
Over one thousand of His Majesty's troops 
were dead and wounded on the field. The 
American loss was not half that number. 

The l)attles of Saratog-a and Yorktown were 
the most decisive during- the war in bring-ing- 
about the g-rand result — the independence of 
America and the g-lorious liberty we now en- 
joy. 'At Saratog-a, Burgoyne, the British g-en- 
eral, surrendered with his entire army to 
General Gates and his noble band of patriots. 
This occurred in October, 1777. 

In October, 1781, the battle of Yorktown 


was foug-ht which resulted in the surrender of 
the British fleet and the array of Lord Corn- 
wallis, and terminated the war. 

The g-lorious intelligence flew on the wing's 
of the wind. So great was the joy that some 
lost their reason, and one, a good patriot in 
the city of Philadelphia, expired. 

You will now briefly notice the character, 
the kind of people the men and women en- 
gaged in the Revolutionary struggle. It 
would be superfluous to say they were the 
friends of Freedom. The struggle was not 
despotism against despotism; not to cast off 
one form of tyranny for the sake of another, 
but the struggle was between despotism and 
liberty. No sacrifice was too great, no suffer- 
ing too appalling to be endured for Freedom. 
Wives said to husbands, go; mothers said to 
their sons, go and fight the battles of God and 
your countr^^ Sisters encouraged brothers 
as they were leaving home for the army in the 
most heroic exhortations. Ladies of rank 
and fortune made cartridges for the soldiers. 

You have read of the heroic conduct of Mol- 
Iv Stark, the soldier's wife, during the battle 
of Trenton. During the hottest of the action 
she carried water from a neighboring spring 
to her husband and fellow soldiers. Her hus- 
band was a gunner; a ball struck him, and he 
fell at his post. No one could be spared to 


take his place. The noble and ])atri()tic wom- 
an performed the duties of a t^^unner with so 
much ability and bravery that she received 
the title of Captain Molly. 

The sufferino^s of the soldiers were often 
most intense from want of clothino- and food, 
and none but men fio-htino- for freedom would 
have endured them with such cheerfulness 
and heroic fortitude. 

The army that went to Canada by way of 
the Kenebec w'ere driven to such extremities 
in the uninhabited wilderness throug-h w^hich 
they passed late in the fall that dog-s, car- 
tridge boxes and old shoes were eaten with 

In midwinter the soldiers w^ere sometimes 
without shoes, and they could be tracked by 
the blood from their lacerated feet. 

When disheartening- defeat and disaster at- 
tended the American arms, as was sometimes 
the case, the enemy w^ould embrace such times 
of gloominess to offer pardon and bribes to 
the officers and men to induce them to aban- 
don the cause of liberty and return to their 
allegiance to the crown of Great Britain. 

But the lang-uage of Gen. Reed on one of 
these occasions expressed the feelings of all. 
He was offered ten thousand pounds ster- 
ling- and a high office in the British service if 
he would desert the American cause. His 


noble reply was: "I am not worth purchas- 
ing-, but such as I am the King- of Great 
Britain is not rich enoug^h to buy me." 

Lastly: There were a God acknowledging- 
and a God-fearing- people. They not only 
believed the abstract truth or doctrine of the 
existence of a Supreme Being-, but with a 
firm reliance on the protection of Divine Prov- 
idence, they mutually pledg-ed each other 
*'their lives, their fortunes and their sacred 
honor," for the support of the principles set 
forth in the Declaration of Independence. 

The records of Cong-ress at that time abund- 
antly prove this by the frequent national days 
of fasting- and prayer and seasons of thanks- 
g-iving-. When disaster attended the Ameri- 
can army a day of fasting- and prayer was ob- 
served, and when success and victory brig-ht- 
ened the prospects of freedom a day of public 

The special providence of God was clearly 
manifested in g-uiding- and controling- the 
events of that long- strug-g-le, which eventuated 
so gloriously to the cause of liberty and the 
people of the colonies. In raising- up such a 
man as Washing-tion at such a time, in pre- 
serving- his life, thoug-h frequently in the 
hottest of the fig-ht, in blood and carnag-e. 

In distinctly marked providence in favor of 
the Americans and ag-ainst the enemy. There 


is the memorable niilit.irx- lace that t()f)k ])lace 
l)et\veen (Tencral Mori^-an and Lord Cornwal- 
lis at the south — hrst to the lords of the Ca- 
tawba, and then to those of the Yadkin. 

Moro-an, with a force of Americans j^reatly 
inferior in number, was retreatinor from and 
in imminent dang-er of capture or destruction 
by the British army under Cornwallis. Mor- 
g-an reached the Catawba river just in time to 
cross before nig^htfall. Cornwallis, with his 
command, did not dare to attempt the cross- 
ing- in the darkness. During- the nig-ht a tre- 
mendous rain swelled the river out of banks, 
making- it impossible for the British to cross 
save by a long- detour, which was made. 

A little later, and during- the same retreat, 
Cornwallis' army stopped by darkness camped 
on the banks of the Yadkin river. The camp- 
fires of Morgan's band of patriots could be 
seen on the other side, and it seemed as 
though the lig-ht of the following- day must 
witness their destruction, butag-ain the "win- 
dows of heaven were opened" and the Yadkin 
was transformed into a rag-ing-, impassable 

Disheartened at what was regarded by the 
British commander as a second interposition 
of Divine Providence, Cornwallis turned back 
from the pursuit, and Morgan's army was 
saved to the cause of freedom. 


Lastly, let us briefly g-lance at the dang-ers 
that threaten our liberties. There are foreign 
and domestic foes to our free institutions. 
The crowned heads of Europe have always 
looked upon the United States with a jealous 
eye, and with feelinofs of positive dislike, on 
account of the discontent our institutions g'en- 
erate in the minds of their oppressed subjects. 
But dang-ers of this character need g-ive us 
little alarm, as the United States in a just 
cause is a match for any European power. 

Our domestic enemies are of another and 
more dang-erous character. 

1. Intemperance is a dang-erous enemy to 
freedom. That which puts shackles on a man 
so effectually he cannot stir and unfits him for 
all business. Our rulers have been captured 
by this enemy. 

2. Avarice, insatiable avarice, which leads 
to bribery and corruption. 

3. That mob spirit which has already be- 
come formidable and increasing- in the coun- 
try. The reig-n of the mob is the reig-n of 
anarchy and terror. Liberties and rig-hts are 
trampled on in the most wanton manner. 

4. Another formidable enemy is the sys- 
tem of slavery. On this point I speak as an 
American citizen and friend of my country. 
If there Avere at the present time no dang-er- 
our indications seen from this quarter, the 


nature of thf case renders it an eneniv ol the 
most formidable character. Because slavery 
and liberty are opposites — they are antaj^-o- 
nistic and cannot live in harmony — the one 
must be subverted bv the other sooner or 
later. One is based upon principles contained 
in the Declaration of Independence, the other 
a palpable denial of those principles, and 
denominates that o-lorious and incomparable 
instrument a fig-ure of speech — a rhetorical 
flourish, a beautiful abstraction. The en- 
croachment of slavery upon freedom since the 
g^reat actors in the scenes of the Revolution 
have passed away, has been steady, effectual 
and certain. It has demanded an abridg-e- 
ment of the liberty of the press, strangled 
free speech, and forced the surrender of ter- 
ritory consecrated to freedom, to its desolat- 
ing power. It has demanded and obtained a 
judicial decision from the supreme tribunal of 
the land, that its dominion is co-extensive 
with the constitution of the United States. 

God speed the day when another declaration 
shall be made in this land, no less important, 
no less g-rand and sublime than the one we 
have heard read to-day, which will proclaim 
the emancipation of a race now held in bond- 
age, triumphantly vindicating the declaration, 
that "all men are created equal." 



That part of this address, referring- to slav- 
ery as one of the dangers threatening- the 
country, and the existence of the government, 
and stating that freedom and slavery could 
not long- exist side by side, that sooner or 
later one must g^o, was prophetic. 

On June 16, 1858, thirteen years later, Mr. 
Lincoln in accepting- the nomination for 
United States Senator from Illinois said: 

"A house divided against itself cannot 
stand. I believe this government cannot en- 
dure permanently, half slave and half free. I 
do not expect the Union to be dissolved. I do 
not expect the house to fall, but I do expect it 
will cease to be divided. It will become all 
one thing- or the other." 

William H. Seward at Rochester, New 
York, October 25, 1858, said: 

"It is an irrepressible conflict between op- 
posing* forces, and it means that the United 
States must and will, sooner or later become, 
either entirely a slave holding nation or en- 
tirelv a free labor nation." 

Chapter XV 



"Our address this evening- upon the subject 
of Temperance will be based upon the follow- 
ing- passag-e of scripture: 'And I looked and 
beheld a pale horse; and his name that sat on 
him was Death, and Hell followed with him. 
And power was g-iven unto them over the 
fourth part of the earth to kill with the sword 
and with hung-er, and with death, and by the 
beasts of the earth.' Rev. 6: 8. 

In the early history of mankind, when the 
words of the lang-uag-e of the people were few 
and inadequate to express abstract and pro- 
found truths, emblems, symbols, hierog-lyph- 
ics, and other representations w^ere resorted 
to as means by which ideas were conveved 
from one person to another; and although 



sometimes unavoidably involving- the subject 
in doubt and obscurity, yet particularly im- 
pressive. Althoug-h the book of Revelation 
contains much g-iven in symbols which the 
lapse of time alone can unfold, yet we read 
those descriptions, unsurpassed as they are 
in majesty and sublimity, with the deepest in- 
terest and most profound awe and reverence. 
The book of Revelation is pre-eminently a 
book of symbols and in the interpretation and 
application of the symbols of this particular 
passag-e, expositors have by no means been 
ag-reed. And without the least pretense to 
uncommon orig-inality w^e shall venture to 
make a new application of these symbols for 
your consideration this evening-. 

We shall apply them and endeavor to make 
g-ood that application, to Intemperance and its 
train of consequences. 

And why not? War is symbolized in this 
book. Famine is symbolized. Pestilence that 
walketh in darkness, and destruction that 
wasteth at noon day, are symbolized. And 
why not that more fearful curse, that unsur- 
passed evil which entails upon the human fam- 
ily far more widespread and dreadful calam- 
ities than war, famine and pestilence com- 
bined. This is not an exag-g-erated statement, 
but is fully corroborated by carefully pre- 
pared and thoroughly reliable statistics. 


Now lor tlic symbols and their application. 

The writer of this wonderfnl hook has in 
vision a train — a procession. At the head of 
this procession is a pale horse with his rider. 
The name of the rider is Death, and Hell fol- 
lowed with him and made up the train. 

The Pale Horse is Intemperance. The 
rider, which personifies the direct conse- 
quences of intemperance, is Death. Hell or 
Hades, which makes up the mij^hty proces- 
sion — the dark abyss whose depths have never 
been measured — whose g-loomy recesses have 
never been surveyed, follows to eng-ulf and 
swallow everythinor that is honest, just, pure, 
lovely, or of g-ood report, in short, everything- 
that makes life pleasant and desirable. 

This represents the squalid wretchedness, 
the untold and indescribable devastation, 
moral and physical, which intemperance en- 
tails upon the human family. 

But let us make up the mig-hty train. 

First. The Pale Horse. This word des- 
cribing- the color or appearance of the horse 
is fearfully sig-nificant and is not fully ex- 
pressed by the word pale. It means a livid 
pallor — a peculiar combination of black and 
blue so as to produce a purple pallor, such 
as is seen in the bloated face of him who died 
after a protracted season of debauchery, the 
victim of intemperance. The rider of this 


pale horse the writer does not describe, but 
he calls him Death. 

This pale horse with his rider is at the head 
of the column. 

But let us in the first place make a street or 
way for this procession. 

And in order that saloon keepers and all 
that are eng-ag-ed in the nefarious traffic may- 
have a clear and impressive view of the extent 
of their work of devastation, we will arrang-e 
their shops, and we embrace only those in our 
own beloved country, in two continuous par- 
allel lines and we have a compact street more 
than one hundred miles in leng-th. 

As you pass along- this street you will see 
mag-nificent palaces with marble fronts, fitted 
up in the most g-org-eous and expensive man- 
ner to allure the rich, the noble, the educated, 
the refined, the g-ay and the g-iddy, within 
their g-ilded walls to sip the poison from 
g-olden g-oblets. You will also see low, loath- 
some dog-g-eries, patronized by the masses 
from the slums of cities and towns. These 
are the extremes. Then there is every inter- 
mediate g-rade, so that all classes are em- 
braced within their destructive purposes. 

Death upon the Pale Horse triumphantly 
enters this long- street, this mig-hty avenue of 
destruction — the murmuring- winds of heaven 
mournfully playing- the death dirg-e — followed 


first by a funeral procession, composed of 
those who have died as the direct effects of 
intoxication in a sin^jj-le year — one hundred and 
fifty-two thousand in number, and makin^j^ a 
procession more than fifty miles in len<^th, 
takino- many days to pass a g^iven point. 
Tramp, tramp, this sad and melancholy cor- 
tege moves nig-ht and day. 

Among- the dead you will see representatives 
from every class of society — senators, gfovern- 
ors, g"enerals, lawyers, doctors, professors 
from colleg"es, ministers of the g^ospel, farm- 
ers, mechanics, students, clerks, old, middle 
ag*ed, young-, and not a few females. 

And then add to this long- procession all 
who have lost their lives indirectly from in- 
temperance — those who have been murdered — 
wives and children who have died by the cru- 
elty and neg-lect of drunken husbands and 
fathers — the thousands that have lost their 
lives on railroads and steamboats and other- 
wise, throug-h the stupidity and recklessness 
of employes, caused by drink, and the mig-hty 
column is nearly doubled. 

And as a larg-e majority of those composing- 
this part of the procession are husbands and 
fathers, the next to file in are the mourners. 
They come in all the sad and squalid wretch- 
edness and misery which intemperance en- 
tails. One hundred thousand widows and 


three hundred thousand children moving- in 
double file making- a procession many miles in 
length. They come from dark, damp, gloomy 
cellars, filthy garrets, alms houses, poor 
houses and insane asylums. 

The wails of these worse than widowed 
women, the cries of these worse than orphaned 
children, ascend to heaven and call in trumpet 
tones for veng-eance upon their inhuman tor- 
menters— the brutal authors of their sorrows. 
See the heart-broken wife and mother, with a 
face haggard with care and want as she tries 
in vain to hush the cries of a hung-ry babe. 
Hear the lamentations of mothers over sons 
who have gone down early in life to drunk- 
ard's graves. "Oh, my son, my darling- son, 
would to God I had died for thee and with 
thee ere thou didst open thine eyes upon a 
rum cursed earth." 

Look, my hearers, at this saddest of all 
funeral corteg-es as it is moving-. Inspect 
each family g-roup as it passes. See that wid- 
owed mother, pale, haggard, forlorn, carrying- 
a puny, sickly child in her arms, leading- an- 
other by the hand, followed by three or four 
more without the first expression of youthful 
vivacity and cheerfulness in their faces, all 
utterly crushed out by the demon of intem- 

What we have thus briefly referred to in 


the appearance of this ])rocession of mourners 
is only some of the outside visible fruits of 
intemperance — of the rum traffic. 

But the most vivid, the strongest imag'ina- 
tion fails to brin^- out the scenes which lie 
back of the visible and apparent ravai^^es of in- 
temperance, and far deeper than all these, 
there lies a field of desolation, of devastation 
and ruin, which has never been explored and 
never can be described. "It is the wasted 
realm of social affection, the violated sanc- 
tuary of domestic peace." In that field the 
brig*htest hopes have been blasted, the most 
cherished aspirations disappointed, ambition 
crushed and loving" hearts broken. 

Many years ag-o, in one of the eastern states, 
a young- couple were united in marriag-e. 
They were well educated, moved in the best 
circles of society, and w^ere respected by all. 

Their wedding- festivities were not shaded 
by a sing-le misg-iving* of either party. They 
started out upon life's voyag-e with apparently 
no adverse breeze or threatening- cloud. The 
future however revealed the fact that a small 
cloud "like a man's hand" lay concealed be- 
low the horizon, whose dark hues, as it g-rad- 
ually came in sig-ht, were in a measure di- 
vested of their ug-liness by the brilliant rays 
of the morning- sun. But that cloud, small 
and then foreboding" no alarming- dang-er. 


gradually rose and expanded until the whole 
heavens were overcast, and it poured its des- 
tructive fiery bolts into the once happy family. 

The fact was, though successfull}^ con- 
cealed, the young man had contracted a taste 
for intoxicating- drink. Without following the 
history of the family, always the same under 
like circumstances, things went from bad to 
worse until years of wretchedness had passed. 
One winter night the loving, confiding wife, 
now a mother of several children, in a cold, 
cheerless house, after putting the older ones 
to bed and caring for them as best she could, 
sat holding a sick one upon her lap. The hus- 
band and father came home at a late hour 
crazed with whiskey. Enraged because his 
supper was not ready he seized an old fash- 
ioned house shovel and with one terrible blow 
upon her head felled her to the floor. An 
alarm was given by the older children and 
when the neighbors came they found the poor 
woman already dead with tear stained cheeks. 

Now take those tears as the representative 
of all the tears caused by the intemperance of 
that husband and father, and suppose them to 
be the representatives of all the sorrow and 
wretchedness caused directly and indirectly 
by his intemperance; then let the history of 
those tears be fully written, and we have a 
description of the devastation of intemperance 


in one family and its immediate connections. 
We sav its connections, for let it be borne in 
mind that that intemperate man was connected 
by stron<)f and tender ties to others besides 
his wife and children. He was a son and 
brother as well as a husband and father. Fur- 
thermore, that dead wife and mother was also 
a daug-hter and sister, by reason of which sor- 
row and sadness were carried into other 
hearts and other families. And then let it 
be borne in mind that the consequences of 
that father's intemperance are entailed upon 
his children and perhaps upon children's 
children even to the third and fourth gener- 

But w^e must pass on. Must leave this part 
of Hell that follows in the train of Death upon 
the Pale Horse, thoug-h by no means have we 
reached the end of the mighty column. 

The next in the procession are from the 
jails, houses of correction, prisons, peniten- 
tiaries, and the like. The cause of their be- 
ing in those places is told in one word — 

Their number amounts to over one hundred 
thousand annually, guilty of every shade of 
crime from petty larceny to the most brutal 
murder. There is nothing- in all nature that 
has the power like intoxicating drinks to stu- 
pify the conscience, to paralyze the moral sen- 


timents, to blot out the affection, in short, to 
so completely brutalize the entire man. Un- 
der its influence husbands murder wives. 
Parents murder children, children murder 
parents, brothers murder brothers, neig^hbors 
murder neighbors. 

This immense army of criminals is also 
composed of representatives of every class of 
community, every occupation, every ag-e and 
of both sexes. 

Now, my friends, could all the bloody, re- 
volting* and trag-ical circumstances connected 
with the perpetration of all the crimes this 
mig-hty army are g-uilty of be enacted before 
our own eyes, we mig'ht be prepared in some 
measure to appreciate the application of the 
symbols of the text. And Hell followed in 
the train. 

But we have not yet reached the end of this 
mig^hty column. Still they come. It reaches 
back to an immeasurable distance. The van 
of another division crowds closely upon the 
rear of the preceding-, and the thousands of 
the approaching" column will soon take the 
places of those g-one before. 

The next in the procession are the living- 
drunkards and the moderate drinkers, so 
called. These tw^o classes are so thoroug-hly 
interming-led and mixed up, we will make no 
attempt to separate them. 


They bet^fin witli hecr and wiiu' and end 
with whiskey. They be^in with ti])])lin<4-, and 
end with drunkenness. They bet^in in the 
parlors on Turkish and velvet carpets, in the 
marble front and oforo-eously furnished sa- 
loons, and end in the lowest and most filthy 
dives, and in the o-utter. They beg-in with 
respectability and end with debauchery, 
shame and crime. 

This class is far more numerous than any, 
and perhaps all that preceded. Its numbers 
g-o into millions. Prom this class the others 
are recruited. More, if it was not for this 
class the preceding" ones would have no exist- 
ence. Thousands of this class who seem to 
be so far towards the rear of the mig*hty 
column will very soon find themselves in close 
proximity to the Pale Horse with his rider. 
Tramp, tramp, the procession moves steadily 
along '*to that undiscovered country from 
whose bourne no traveler returns." 

This vast multitude in every stage of pro- 
gress in the broad way that leads to the 
drunkard's death and to his end, is composed 
of husbands, fathers, sons, brothers, wives, 
mothers, daughters, sisters, and more dis- 
tant relations. Hence we shall be justified in 
repeating- a statement before made: There 
are scenes which lie back of the visible and 
apparent ravages of intemperance and far 


deeper than all these, there lies a field of des- 
olation, of devastation and ruin which has 
never been explored and never can be des- 
cribed. It is the wasted realm of the strong- 
est and most tender social affection, the vio- 
lated sanctuary of domestic peace. 

In that field the brig-htest hopes are blasted, 
the most cherished anticipations disappointed, 
ambition crushed and loving- hearts broken. 

All other evils and ag-ents combined em- 
ployed by the devil himself do not and cannot 
do so much to make hell on earth as intoxicat- 
ing drinks. 

A person may realize the truth of this state- 
ment to some extent, by taking- a nig-ht walk 
through the streets and alleys and avenues of 
any g-reat city, where every other house is a 
brothel and the intermediate one a saloon of 
the lowest order, mutually furnishing- patron- 
age to each other. 

And lastly the class bringing- up the rear of 
the column are the tax payers, the masses 
who either voluntarily or by constraint, pay 
tribute to intemperance. This monster evil 
is terribly exacting- and lays every industry 
of the nation under contribution. It crowds 
our jails, penitentiaries, poor houses, alms 
houses and asylums with inmates. It length- 
ens the criminal dockets of our courts. 

More money is paid out in the United States 


in one year for intoxicatinf>- drinks and their 
immediate consecjuences than for flour and 
meal, cotton g-oods, woolen g-oods, clothing-, 
boots and shoes, newspapers and books. If 
all the money expended in the United States 
annually for intoxicating- liquors and their di- 
rect consequences was devoted to the liquida- 
tion of the national debt, it would be wiped 
out in less than three years. The state of 
Iowa alone, with her string-ent liquor law, 
spends annually nearly thirty-six millions for 
the vile stuff. 

But we will pass on. If we are correct in 
this application of the symbols already no- 
ticed, it will not be difficult to apply the 

"And the power was g-iven unto them over 
the fourth part of the earth to kill with the 
sword, and with hung-er, and with death by 
the beasts of the earth." 

"Over a fourth of the earth." 

By this we are to understand, not an exact 
definite part, but a widespread power to con- 
trol, a g-eneral sweeping- calamity. Pesti- 
lence, however destructive, is confined to lo- 
calities. War, however desolating-, is limited 
in its calamities. Famine, however appalling-, 
is g-enerally confined to communities. But 
the devastations of intemperance are not 


bounded by communities, nations, or conti- 

**To kill with the sword." 
This means death by violence, murder in its 
several deg-rees. It is a well known fact that 
such deaths are the prominent fruits of in- 

"And with hung-er." 

An unmeasured future alone can reveal the 
countless number of human being^s who have 
died and will yet die by starvation or by dis- 
eases caused by want of food, or in conse- 
quence of unwholesome food, all broug-ht about 
by intemperance. And the number would be 
more than doubled if it were not for the pub- 
lic provision made to feed the hung-ry and 
starving- victims of the inhuman traffic. 
*«And to kill with death." 
This is peculiar lang-uag-e and is intended 
to express a most sig-nificant truth. Death is 
made use of as an instrument with which to 
kill, i. e,, death is inherent in the instrument. 
When the sons of the prophets were eating- 
poisoned pottage unawares, one, when he be- 
g-an to feel the effects of the poison cries out 
to Elisha: **0h thou man of God, there is 
death in the pot;" i. e. we shall be killed by 
death in the pot. 

The application of this to our present sub- 
ject is easy and perfectly apposite. As an in- 


stninient of killing-, death or a deadly poison 
is an inherent element of alcohol. 

"And by the beasts of the earth." 

Such beasts are symbols of sava<^e ferocity. 
With remorseless indiiference, they rend, kill 
and devour. They know no repect or sympa- 
thy. The ag-ed, the young-, the strong- man, 
the feeble delicate female, childhood and 
helpless infancy are alike to them. They 
hide, they crouch, they disguise, they allure 
to slay and devour. 

These symbolize the rum-seller. 

The hung-ry lion or tig-er does not rend, kill 
and devour its prey with more remorseless in- 
difference, with less sympathy for its bleed- 
ing, dying- victim, than the rum-seller, as he 
plies his business of devastation and ruin. 
It matters not to him what the consequences 
may be personally to the victim of his insatia- 
ble greed for g-ain. or what may be the conse- 
quences to his suffering- family. It makes no 
difference how earnestly wife and children 
may plead to g-ive no more drink, he will let 
him have the poison just as long- as he has a 
dime to pay for it. 

John B. Goug-h relates the following- which 
occurred in Massachusetts: 

"A poor old lady, formerly living- in afflu- 
ence, had a husband and two sons who became 
intemperate. One morning- a son was found 


dead with his head in a pool of water, into 
which he had fallen while intoxicated. In 
view of this terrible affliction, she wrote a pe- 
tition to her neig^hbor, the rum-seller, entreat- 
ing- him to g-ive her husband and remaining- 
son no more liquor. Such a petition coming" 
from the w^ife and mother, under such circum- 
stances, one would think might have melted a 
heart of adamant. But it did not melt the 
rum-seller's heart. He took the petition, 
read it, deliberately cut it into tapers and put 
them in a tumbler, and when the father and 
son came into the bar room, he would g-ive 
them cig-ars and those tapers to light them. 
This he continued until they were all con- 
sumed, and then boasted that he had made the 
father and son burn up the pious petition of 
the old woman." 

"And I looked and beheld a Pale Horse and 
his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell 
followed with him." 

Chapter XVI. 



"In this historical address we wish to illus- 
trate Bible lessons to the praise and g"lory of 
God. Such lessons as are found in Josh. 1: 
G-7: "Be strong- and of g-ood courag-e. Only 
be thou strong- and very courag-eous, that 
thou mayest observe to do all the law which 
Moses, My servant, commanded thee. Turn 
not from it, to the rig-ht hand or to the left, 
that thou mayest prosper whithersoever thou 

Also, Isa. 6: 8-9: "I heard the voice of the 
Lord saying-: Whom shall I send and who 
will g-o for Us? Then said I, here am I; send 
me. And He said, Go." 



Also, Mark 16: 15: "And He said unto 
them, Go ye into all the world and preach the 
g-ospel to every creature." 

Also, Ps. 37: 3: "Trust in the Lord and do 
g-ood, and thou shall dwell in the land and 
verily thou shalt be fed." 
Dwell in the land. 

Our Iowa is indeed a beautiful land. A 
g-oodly land. A land desirable to dwell in. 
We do not wonder the Indians, when the time 
came to take a final leave of this beautiful land 
and move on towards the setting- sun, wept 
like children. 

The first, or Black Hawk purchase, made in 
1832, taking- effect June, 1833, embraced a 
strip fifty miles wide west of the Mississippi 
river, extending from the state of Missouri on 
the south to the neutral ground on the north, 
containing- about six million acres. 

The second purchase, made in 1837, taking- 
effect February, 1838, was a strip west of the 
first and supposed to contain 1,250,000 acres. 
The balance of Iowa was opened for settle- 
ment in May, 1843. In one year from the time 
the first or Black Hawk purchase took effect, 
the first Baptist Church in Iowa was org-an- 
ized nine or ten miles west of Burling-ton, 
and called the Long Creek (now Danville) 
Baptist Church. The six Iowa Churches 
composing the Davenport Association were 


all ()r<4ani/cd wliilr \'an liurun, jL'ffers(jn, 
Was hi Hilton, Johnson, Linn, Buchanan, Fay- 
ette and Clayton counties were the western 
boundary of civilization, and the eastern 
boundary of a vast territory extendi njjf to the 
British possessions on the north and the Pa- 
cific on the west, and in the sole possession 
of Indians and wild beasts. At that time 
the nearest railroad to Iowa had not reached 
as far west as the city of BuiTalo, and 
Chicaofo was a country villa.o-e in a v,estern 
sloug'h, or mud hole. And at that time the 
impression was g-eneral that in consequence 
of the scarcity of fuel and fencing- material, 
and so far from w^ater communication, the 
great prairies of Illinois and Iowa would never 
be settled. 

The contrast between then and now came 
most impressively a few^ weeks ag^o as we 
sped on a Burling-ton train throug-h the luxur- 
iant g^rain fields of Iowa and Nebraska, and as 
^ve rushed along-, drawn by g-reat mog^ul en- 
g-ines, scaling' the snowy heig^hts and plung-- 
ing- throug-h the dark and awful g-ranite canons 
of Colorado, and as we walked the streets of 
thein growing- and prosperous cities and 
towns, and as we considered that like condi- 
tions continue for many hundred miles to the 
Pacific ocean. 

The first Baptist Church west of the Mis- 


sissippi river, north of Missouri, was organ- 
ized in a little loo- cabin nine miles west of the 
city of Burling-ton. This interesting- event 
took place June 20, 1834, and consisted of 
eleven members, four brethren and seven sis- 
ters, namely, Enoch Cyrus, Prank Cyrus, 
Rebecca Cyrus, Anna Cyrus, Rachel Dickens, 
Mary Ann Dickens, Noble Housely, Naomi 
Housely, William Manly, Hepzibah Manly and 
Jane Lamb. Elders John Log-an and Gard- 
ner Bassett, of Illinois, were present to en- 
courao-e and assist in the organization of the 
church. It was called the Long- Creek 

Four or five years after, close by this same 
cabin on the prairie lawn, the first Associa- 
tion west of the Mississippi river was organ- 
ized, called Des Moines Association. In Oct- 
ober, 1889, on a bright autumn day, as though 
God smiled upon the scene, a large concourse 
of people gathered around the remains of the 
little cabin to appropriately observe memorial 
services of the fift3^-fourth anniversary of the 
Church, and the fiftieth of the Association. 
How intensely interesting' the thought and 
imaginations that crowded upon the mind and 
solemnly and joyfully oppressed our hearts, 
as we looked upon the remains of that cabin 
and thought of the happy meeting more than 
fifty-four 3^ears before — of the songs of praise, 


''All Hail the Power of Jesus Name," and the 
sermon by Elder Lo^-an and the prayer by 
Elder Bassett that God would be to the dear 
little Church in the wilderness "a pillar of 
cloud by day and a pillar of lire by ni<^ht/' to 
lead and protect. That church, now Danville, 
yet lives, strong- in the Lord and in the power 
of His mig-ht. 

We will g-ive a brief history of the organi- 
zation of the seven Churches composing- the 
Baptist Association, org-anized in Davenport, 
September 16, 1842. The second west of the 
Mississippi river, north of Missouri. 

We will beg-in with LeClaire, as this was the 
first Baptist Church org-anized west of the 
Mississippi and north of Des Moines county. 
Early in 1839, Elder Rodolphus Weston, of 
Carthage, Hancock county, Illinois, made a 
missionary tour up the Mississippi as far 
north as Scott county, Iowa, preaching- the 
precious g-ospel to the settlers. In the upper 
part of Scott county he stopped a number of 
days to preach and visit the people. The re- 
sult was the org-anization of a Church of six 
members, viz: Joseph Turner and Tacy, his 
wife. Jiving- a mile west of where LeClaire now 
stands. William Palmer and Amanda, his 
wife, living- in the Wapsy Bottom, ten miles 
north of brother Turner's, and William Rowe 
and Mary, his wife, living- in a log- cabin on 


the banks of the Mississippi, midway between 
the two extremes. The little Church was or- 
ganized in brother Rowe's house June 10, 
1839, and this was the place of meeting- for 
several years. As brother Palmer and wife, 
and brother Rowe and wife emig-rated from 
Bath, Steuben county, New York; in grateful 
remembrance of the dear old home they called 
it the Bath Baptist Church. This name was 
retained until April, 1844, when it was 
changed to LeClaire. Brother Palmer 
brought with him from New York a favorite 
family horse, very old, but true and faithful. 
The old horse's name was "Doc." People 
living- on the road between brother Palmer's 
and brother Rowe's always knew when there 
was a meeting- of the Church, for they were 
sure to see sister Palmer riding- old "Doc" 
and brother Palmer walking- by her side. El- 
der Weston was invited to become pastor; ac- 
cepted and returned to Carthage to arrange 
family matters. He was taken sick, hover- 
ing- between life and death for weeks. His 
cherished plans and purposes had to be given 
up, and he never returned. The Church 
kept up Covenant meetings and had preach- 
ing occasionally. Two months after the 
Church was organized, Daniel C. Davidson, 
living on Crow Creek, a few miles above Dav- 
enport, united by letter. Ten months later 

PollyMcKinstcr joiiu'd 1)\- K'tU'r. Ncarlx' two 
ye.'irs later Koht'rt Hilton and Orleans Blan- 
chard, livinj^- in Illinois baciv of Port Bvron, 
joined by letter. At the time the Daven- 
port Association was formed, it reported a 
membership of eleven. One of the constit- 
uent members, brother Rowe, had died. 

The first revival and the iirst additions by 
baj^tism occurred in the fall of 1843, under 
the labors of Elder Jessie N. Seely. Twen- 
ty-two were added by baptism and ei^-ht by 
letter. From this time for years it enjoyed a 
g-ood measure of prosperity until the Zion 
Church was oro-anized a few miles back of 
LeClaire, depriving- it of most of its rural 
field and membership, and left it little but 
the fluctuating- population of the villag^e. 

May God in His mercy send prosperity and 
save it from extinction. 

Davenport — This is the next church in the 
date of its org-anization, September 14, 1839, 
consisting- of eleven members. Elder Calvin 
Greenleaf, of Grig-g-sville, Illinois, w^as com- 
missioned in the spring- of 1839 by the Home 
Missionary Societ\^ to labor in Davenport. 
He commenced in June and remained but two 
months. Elder Titus Gillett, of Rock Island, 
held occasional preaching services in the place, 
and probably it was due to his labors the 
Church was constituted. For several months 
it had the services of Oliver Emerson, a young- 


man from Ohio, but declined to ordain him as 
his views on the subject of the Lord's supper 
did not accord with the Baptists, and he be- 
came a Conoregationalist. 

In June, 1841, Elder Ezra Pisher was com- 
missioned by the Home Missionary Society to 
labor in Davenport and Bloomino^ton (Mus- 
catine). Before the close of the first year he 
dropped the Davenport part of his field and 
devoted his time to Muscatine and other 

November, 1842, Elder Charles E. Brown 
became joint pastor of the Davenport and 
Rock Island Churches. In the following- Feb- 
ruary revival meeting's were held, assisted by 
Elder T. Powell, in the Old Court House in 
Rock Island, As there was easy communica- 
tion between the two places by a safe ice 
bridg-e on the Mississippi river, during- that 
long-, cold winter Davenport shared largely in 
the g-ood work, receiving- eig'hteen by baptism, 
and fifteen by letter. Rock Island received 
twenty by baptism and five by letter. 

During- the following- summer, 1843, Elder 
Brown made several missionary tours up the 
Mississippi on both sides as far as Lyons and 
Pulton; org-anized a Church at Camanche, and 
one at Port Byron, and baptized in both 
places. These early Churches had the true 
missionary spirit and said to their pastors, 


"Go, preach to the destitute in regions be- 

Dubuque — This is the next Church, organ- 
ized August 9, 1840, with eleven members. 
During the following winter it had preaching 
a part of the time by Elder Warren B. Morey, 
of the Home Missionary Society at Galena, 
Illinois. Elder Burton Carpenter became 
pastor in the spring of 1841. During his pas- 
torate of three years, eleven were received 
by baptism and eighteen by letter, and a place 
of worship, yes, a meeting house, about twenty 
by thirty, was built. Elder Edward S. By- 
ron succeeded Elder Carpenter in Septem- 
ber, 1844. 

Iowa City — This Church was organized by 
Elders W. B. Morey and B. Carpenter, June 
26, 1841, consisting of eleven members. The 
joyful occasion was rendered more so by the 
baptism of two rejoicing candidates in the 
beautiful Iowa river, Elder Morey officiating. 
There w^as joy in that city. Elder Morey was 
the first pastor. After the first year his field 
was enlarged by the Home Missionary Society 
to take in low^a City, Marion, in Linn county, 
and the Cedar river country. The first 
marked religious interest in the Iowa City 
Church occurred under the pastorate of Elder 
Dexter P, Smith, during the winter of 1845-6. 


Nine were added by baptism and eig-ht by 

Muscatine — This Church was organized by 
Elder Ezra Fisher, October 30, 1841, consist- 
ing- of six members, viz: Stephen Hedly, Al- 
bert Beaty, Julia C. Dew^bber, Margaret Mus- 
g-raves, Betsy Ing-als and Nancy Bear. Dur- 
ing- the first year of its existence four were 
added by baptism and fourteen by letter. 
Elder Fisher was the first pastor and left in 
1844, g-oing- to Oreg-on in 1845. 

Rock Island, Illinois— This Church was or- 
g-anized June 6, 1837, by Elder Titus Gillett, 
who was its first pastor. In November, 1842, 
the Church called Elder C. E. Brown to preach 
the following- winter and in May "called Elder 
Brown to be co-pastor w^ith Elder Gillett, the 
two to receive such compensation as the indi- 
vidual circumstances of the members would 

Forks of the Maquoketa — On the 26th of 
May, 1842, under appointment from the Amer- 
ican Baptist Home Missionary Society, on a 
salary of one hundred dollars, the payment of 
which was made conditional that the balance 
of the missionary's support was obtained up- 
on the field of his labor. Elder Brown came to 
this place. 

At this time the Home Missionary Society 
was in its infancy and had but little money 


lor its consl.'inth' i^row inj^- woi'k. I)iirin<^- its 
fiscal and missionary year of 1842 and '43, the 
receipts of the Society from all sources 
amounted to onl\- S11,S()().51 , with ei<>-hty-five 
missionaries in the Held, receiving- from the 
Society an average of about S131.00 each, and 
obtaining^ the balance — whatever that mig-ht 
mean — from their respective fields of labor. 
We distinctly remember that the balance con- 
tained very little cash. With no intention of 
making- invidious comparisons, we think there 
was more of the ag'gfressive missionary spirit 
then, than now. We will compare the fiscal 
and missionary year of 1842-43 with that of 
1881-82, the fiftieth year of the Society work. 
Then, cash receipts were $11,806.51; now, 
$311,918.38. Then, eig-hty-five missionaries 
in the field; now% five hundred and twelve. 
Results: Then, the eig-hty-five missionaries 
org'anized fifty new churches in one year; now, 
five hundred and twelve missionaries organ- 
ized only seventy-five new churches in one 
year. Then, eig^hty-five missionaries in one 
year baptized one thousand four hundred and 
eig-hty-nine, or over seventeen each; now, five 
hundred and twelve missionaries baptize in 
one year one thousand six hundred and sev- 
enty-five, or less than four each. 

Two of the six Iowa Churches composing- 
the Davenport Association commenced with 


six members each — LeClaire and Muscatine- 

Three — Davenport, Dubuque and Iowa City, 
commenced with eleven each. 

One — Maquoketa, with fourteen. 

All now prospering- except LeClaire. 

A Church now with a g-ood house of worship 
and plenty of perishing- souls around, reduced 
to a membership of six or eleven, or twenty- 
five or thirty, g-ives up and says "We can't" 
and dies. 

What makes the difference? 

In the former case there was courag-e, pur- 
pose, and an unfailing- expectation to live and 

In the latter courag-e is g'one, purpose is 
g'one, but an all-prevailing- expectation to die 
is ever present. 

Next. What is the Bible missionary spirit 
embodied in the commission "Go ye into all 
the world, etc., etc.?" Paul was converted 
completely into this spirit, for when it pleased 
God, w^ho called him by His Grace, to reveal 
His son in me, Gal. 1:15-16, he says: "That 
I mig-ht preach Him among- the heathen, im- 
mediately, I conferred not Avith flesh and 
blood, neither went I up to Jerusalem, but I 
went to Arabia." 

A vision appeared to Paul in the nig-ht; 
there stood a man saying- : "Come over into 
Macedonia, and help us, and immediately we 


endeavored to ^ro into Macedonia, assuredly 
gfathering- that the Lord had called us to 
preach the gospel unto them. Therefore, 
loosing- from Troas we came with a straig^ht 
course to Samothracia '• ^' "^ and so on to 
Philippi, the chief city in that part of Mace- 
donia." In another place Paul says of him- 
self, ''as poor, yet making- many rich; as hav- 
ing nothing- yet possessing- all thing's," etc. 
Now, as Paul declares that he was poor and 
had nothing- he must have g-cne forth accepting^ 
to the fullest extent the divine assurance, 
"Trust in the Lord and do g-ood and verily 
thou shalt be fed," and, "Lo, I am with you 
always, even unto the end of the world." 

If we understand the Bible Missionary 
spirit, the question as to salary cuts no iig-ure 
whatever in making- the decision "Assuredly 
g-athering that the Lord had called us to 
preach the g-ospel unto them." 

For want of this Apostolic Missionary spirit 
hundreds of these reduced churches have died 
and hundreds more must die. For it is very 
certain these feeble churches cannot pay the 
salaries now demanded, and this is the princi- 
pal reason for losing- hope and courag-e. This 
precious divine promise was intended to meet 
this perplexing- salary business: "Trust in 
the Lord and do g-ood and thou shalt dwell in 
the land and verily thou shalt be fed." 


We believe in the providence of God and 
that the gold and the silver and the cattle upon 
a thousand hills are His and at His control, 
and upon this g-rand truth is based this most 
precious promise. The promise does not re- 
lease even the poorest of Christians from the 
binding- obligation of the divine command, "To 
give as the Lord hath prospered." The poor 
widow^'s mites must be given? 

Our great Captain says, "Go ye into all the 
world," etc. 

The Bible plan is given in Isaiah. The 
Lord said: "Whom shall we send and who 
will go for us?" God calls for volunteers. 
The response comes promptly, "Here am I; 
send me," The Lord says "Go." The sal- 
ary question is settled by "Trust in the Lord." 
One reason the Methodists are more success- 
ful than any other denomination in a new 
country is because they are on the Bible plan 
in saying to their preachers, "Go." 

In the month of June, 1842, at Iowa City, 
the Iowa Baptist State Convention was or- 
ganized. Delegates from churches north of 
the Iowa river held an informal meeting to 
consider the subject of organizing a new as- 
sociation, and fixed upon Davenport as the 
place and the 16th of the following Septem- 
ber as the time for carrying out the above 


111 ])iirsnaiK"c' ol t Ik' .-Lhovc .'ipj)()iiitniL'nt, dcl- 
eo-ates Iroin tlu' lollowini^- cliurclu's were 
present : 

Bath, (LeClaire) - William Palmer, Benja- 
min l'\ Pike and Orleans Blanchard. 

Bloom in<,rton, (Muscatine) — Elder Ezra Fish- 
er, pastor, Moses Perrin and W. T. Dewibber. 

Davenport — Hiram Brown, C. C. Blood, J. 
M. Eldredg-e. 

Dubuque — Elder Burton Carpenter, pastor, 
and Benjamin Rupert. 

Iowa City — Elder Warren B. Morey, pastor, 
and A. Denison. 

Forks of the Maquoketa— Elder C. E. Brown, 

Rock Island, 111.— Elder Titus Gillett, pas- 
tor, E. F. Calkins and Nelson J. Swart- 

This embraced all the churches north of the 
Iowa river, except the first, Delaware, in 
Delaware, county, Elder Ira Blanchard, 

Elder Carpenter w^as chosen moderator. 
Elder Fisher, clerk, and Elder Brown preached 
the sermon. Elder Brown is the only one of 
these- deleg-ates now^ livino-. 

In iixintr the time for the annual meeting- of 
the Association two important considerations 
had to be met. 1st. To avoid the sickly sea- 
son in autumn. 2nd. To have it at the time 


of wild fruits, fresh vegetables and fat chick- 
ens. But as all these, sickness, fat chickens 
and fresh veg-etables, came at the same time 
of the year, of the two evils we concluded to 
take the least, and have the chickens and take 
our chances with the ague, and fixed on Friday 
before the third Sabbath in September, and 
hold the meeting over the Sabbath. 

This time remained until wise men came 
from the East and chano-ed it, to the o-reat 
detriment of the spiritual and devotional parts 
of the meeting'. 

The first annual meeting of the Association 
was held in Dubuque, commencing Friday, the 
15th day of September, 1842. Elder W. B. 
Morey preached the introductory sermon, 
George S. Hampton was chosen moderator, 
and Joseph T. Fales, clerk. 

Although the delegates had to travel from 
sixty to ninety miles by wagon, a good repre- 
sentation was present. At this session six 
new churches were received into the Associa- 
tion, viz : Fulton and Lyons, Elder E. Mar- 
cellus, pastor, and H. Root, delegates; two 
added by baptism, twelve by letter ; present 
membership twelve. 

Camanche — No pastor ; John Welsh, dele- 
gate ; eight added bv baptism; whole number 
twelve. These eight were baptised at the 


time the church was organized, probably June, 
1843, bv Elder C. E. Brown. 

Port Byron, 111. — Daniel Wilson, delef^'-ate ; 
four added by baptism, baptised at the time 
the church was org-anized, June or July, 1843, 
by Elder C. E. Brown. Whole number twenty. 

Marion — Org-anized by Elder W. B. Morey 
in the summer of 1843; three added by bap- 
tism, five by letter ; whole number thirty-four. 
Letter but no deleg-ates. 

Cedar River, (on the Cedar river below 
where Cedar Rapids now stands) — Organized 
by Elder Morev in the summer of 1843; five 
added by baptism; whole number seventeen; 
Robert R. Rogers and Thomas Fitz, delegates. 

Galena, 111. — Elder Joel Wheeler, pastor, 
John T. Templeton and John H. Champlin, 
delegates ; one added by baptism, ten by let- 
ter : whole number thirty-four. 

The statistical aggreg-ate was reported by 
the churches as follows: Sixty-five added by 
baptism, sixt3^-four by letter, twenty-six dis- 
missed by letter, three dropped, one died; 
whole number two hundred and ninety-six. 

In connection with the minutes was printed 
an article by Elder Jacob Knapp on com- 
munion. All done for Sll.OO. 

On Sunday Elder Brown preached a mis- 
sionary sermon, after which a collection was 
taken up, amounting- to $8.00. 


The following- memorandum was added to 
the minutes by the clerk: "Great harmony 
and g-ood feeling- prevailed throug-h all the 
deliberations and the brethren evinced a de- 
termination to g-o forward in the cause of 
Christ with renewed zeal." 

Before closing- this address I wish to speak 
briefly of the org-anization of the Camanche 
Baptist Church. In the month of June, 1843, 
a man called at my house in Davenport with a 
halter tied about his shoulders. He said he 
was hunting stray horses and also wished to 
g-et a Baptist minister to come to Camanche 
and baptize himself and wife and his brother 
and several others who had become Christians 
in a revival there. The man's name was John 
Welch. Camanche is some thirty-five miles 
above Davenport on the Iowa side of the Mis- 
sissippi river. I told Brother Welch I would 
be at Camanche the second Sunday thereafter 
to preach, org-anize a Church and baptize. I 
found there had been no preaching- in the 
place. But a Baptist family living- three miles 
north of Camanche by the name of Thomas, 
and another by the name of Root, living- back 
of Albany, in Illinois, and others had held 
relig-ious meeting's in the place and the revival 
was the result. I organized a Church and 
baptized eig-ht, and there was joy in Camanche. 
Althoug-h I was pastor of the Davenport and 


Rock Island CluirchL's, I looked after the wel- 
fare of the new interest at Camanche. The 
last person I baptized into the Church was a 
youno- woman, in June, 1844, by the name of 
Clayburn. Her home was near Brother Thom- 
as, three miles north of Camanche. 1844 was 
a season of hig-h water. For weeks the Mis- 
sissippi was booming- and by reason of a sloutrh 
extendinjj- from the river above around some 
distance back and emptyin<>- below the town, 
Camanche was on an island that summer. 
Miss Clayburn 's purpose to be baptized and 
join the Baptist Church met with the most de- 
cided opposition at home. But when the time 
came, with the courag-e and determination of 
a martyr, she took a bundle of clothes for the 
necessary chang-e and started on foot for Ca- 
manche, and when she came to the sloug-h, 
which was neither narrow nor shallow, she 
held the bundle on her head with one hand and 
went throug-h, and was cordially and loving-ly 
received and baptized. A few years ag'o she 
died in Oakland, California, a faithful follower 
of Christ. 

I love to think of those early days in Iowa. 
I love to cherish the memory of those dear 
brethren and sisters, who, amid discourag-e- 
ment, sowed the g-ood seed in Camanche which 
has not failed to the present time to bring* 
forth fruit to the praise and glory of Go-.l. 

Chapter XVII. 


I was born in Bennington, Vermont, Sept- 
ember 17, 1790. My father's name was Na- 
thaniel. He was born in Leicester, Wooster 
county, Massachusetts, November 5, 1767, and 
died near White's Corners, in the town of 
Hamburg-, Erie county. New York, October 1, 

My mother's maiden name was Anna Perry. 
She was born in Lebanon, New London coun- 
ty, Connecticut, April 16, 1770, and died in 
Aug-usta, Oneida county, New York, March 
20, 1826. Her remains lie in the burying- 
g-round near the stone school house on the 
"Mile Strip," in the present town of Stock- 

I was the second of eig-ht children, five sons 



and three daughters, of whom only two, be- 
sides myself are livinj^-. 

Mv paternal orandfather was Parley Brown. 
At the outbreaking- of the Revolutionary war, 
he was among- the first to volunteer — and with 
a brother entered the American army. Both 
were in the battle of Bunker Hill. When our 
forces were compelled to retire, his brother 
having" been wounded and unable to walk, my 
grandfather bore him on his back in safety 
from the field. Both were larg-e, strong-, mus- 
cular men, w^eig-hing- nearly two hundred 
pounds each. 

I do not know whether he took part in an}^ 
subsequent eng-ag-ement, until the battle of 
White Plains, in which he was killed, October 
28, 1776. 

My maternal g-randfather, Phillip Perry, 
from whom I was named, served as a Lieuten- 
ant in the Revolutionary war. He owned a 
small farm in Arlington, Vermont, and in 
the summer of 1777 obtained leave of absence 
and returned home to secure his crops. His 
nearest neig-hbor was a Tory, Hazard Wilcox, 
who became odious from a well grounded sus- 
picion that he held secret communication with 
the enemy. Between him and Lieutenant 
Perry, however, no differences had been suf- 
fered to disturb their mutual friendship. 


During- the season they "chang-ed work," 
assisting- each other in harvesting*. 

Thus they spent a day in mowing- for Lieu- 
tenant Perry. Sometime the following- nig-ht 
a number of neig-hbors came to the house, and 
calling- Lieutenant Perry, asked assistance in 
the apprehension of Wilcox. Lieutenant 
Perry declined, alleging- the neig-hborly friend- 
ship between himself and Wilcox, and urged 
that others make the arrest. They, however, 
insisted that he g-o with them, and knowing- 
Wilcox oug-ht to be confined where he could 
no long-er harm the American cause, by inter- 
course with the foe. Lieutenant Perry yielded 
reluctantly to their request. Wilcox had been 
by some means warned, and with a bludgeon 
in hand met the party at the door, declaring- 
that he would kill the first man who set foot 
upon the door-step. Lieut. Perry stepped 
forward with the remark, "I do not wish to 
harm you," when Wilcox felled him with a 
blow across the chest. He was carried into 
the house, Wilcox assisting-, cared for as well 
as possible, and soon revived to consciousness, 
seeing- which, Wilcox rejoiced, declaring- he 
would not have struck Lieutenant Perry had 
he not been enrag-ed. Lieutenant Perry re- 
covered sufficiently to walk two or three times 
across the room, when he suddenly stopped, 
and with the words "I am a dead man," fell 


lifeless to the floor. In the confusion Wilcox 
escaped and tied to the British lines. 

A few days afterwards Mrs. Wilcox paid 
Mrs. Perry a friendly visit. For nearly an 
hour both wept in silence, until at len<^th the 
visitor left without a word having- been spoken, 
by reason of their mutual sorrow. Wilcox 
afterwards sent for his family, but the neig^h- 
bors interfered and detained them. At leng-th 
he came for them by nig-ht, and his neig-hbors 
having- knowledg-e of his coming-, armed and 
met him and at a g'iven sig-nal, fired, and Wil- 
cox paid with his life the penalty for his 

Lieutenant Perry left two daug-hters, the 
eldest of whom was my mother. A few months 
after, a third was added. His widow after- 
wards married a Mr. Blair, of Benning-ton, 
Vermont, who having- died, she subsequently 
married a Mr. Duell, of Cambridg-e, Washing-- 
ton county. New York, from which place they 
removed to Shaftesbury, Vermont, where she 

This is as far back as I am now able to trace 
my ancestry. 

When I was quite young- my parents moved 
from Benning-ton to Whitestown, now West 
Moreland, Oneida county. New York. Here, 
my father purchased a tract of wild land, on 
which the villag-e of Clark's Mills now stands. 


That section of country was then new, but be- 
ing- rapidly settled. About a month after 
their arrival, an incident occurred of which, 
on account of the alarm it caused us, I still 
retain a distinct recollection. 

The house occupied by my father stood near 
the Oriskany creek. A little east of the house 
was a road throug-h the woods in a south- 
easterly direction, on which about one hundred 
rods from my father's lived a Mr. Simeon 
Fillmore, an uncle of President Millard Pill- 
more. Prom Pillraore's, one road ran south 
to Clinton, and another, through a larg-e 
marsh, to intersect the first named road, half 
a mile east of father's. Near this point re- 
sided a family named Barker. A few rods 
west of father's across the Oriskany, lived a 
Mr. Stillman. The triangular space within 
these three roads was a dense forest. 

One evening- in April, our family were 
alarmed by a strang-e noise, loud and shrill, a 
wailing- cry, kept up at intervals, apparently 
proceeding- from the swamp. It was evidently 
the cry of a man in distress, or the decoy of a 
hung-ry panther. The woods were then full 
of Indians and wild beasts. After listening- 
for some time, father went to Mr. Stillman's 
and persuaded his son to accompany him on 
the hazardous enterprise of ascertaining* the 
cause of the outcry. 


The nitrht was very chirk. One carried a 
lantern and the other an axe, the only weapon 
in their possession. They proceeded to Fill- 
more's who with his family had fastened their 
house and retired for the ni^-ht. They had 
heard the cry and being- unable to determine 
whether it proceeded from civilized man, sav- 
ag-e, or wild beast, were greatly alarmed. 
Fillmore refused to accompany them or even 
to open his door long- enoug-h for them to enter 
his house. 

The cry continued and my father and Still- 
man proceeded alone. When within about 
twenty rods of the place from which the noise 
came, they stopped and called. The cry 
ceased, but they g-ot no response. Standing- 
in anxious silence till it was repeated, they ad- 
vanced and once more called. Ag-ain it ceased; 
and ag-ain they stood till it was resumed; then 
cautiously proceeding-, by the dim lig-ht of 
their lantern, they described a man lying- in a 
pool of water. It was he who had made the 
nig-ht hideous wdth his outcries. On speaking* 
to him, he became quiet, but made no reply. 
He was too drunk to extricate himself; and 
but for the timely assistance rendered, must 
have perished in the long-, cold night. They 
took him to Mr. Barker's, w^here he was kindly 
cared for. 

During- this transaction, my mother was left 







Colonel 157th New York Infantry, and of 7th Regt. Hancock's Veteran Reserve 

Corps. Brevt. Brigadier General U. S. Volunteers 1 862- 1 865. 


alone with two small children. I still recol- 
lect that I felt safe when I could hide my face 
under my mother's apron. 

My father lived in this vicinity until the 
spring- of 1804, when he removed to the town 
of Augusta where he purchased a tract of wild 
land, about half a mile east of the present site 
of the "Mile Strip School House," the place 
now ow^ned and occupied by a Mr. Powers. 
Then in my fourteenth year, I assisted in 
clearing- the land, for cultivation. 

My education, commenced at Whitestown, 
was continued in our new home and was con- 
fined to the common school, in which reading-, 
writing-, spelling- and arithmetic were taught. 
Althoug-h I subsequently acquired the habit 
of speaking- extemporaneously with consider- 
able g-rammatical accuracy, I never studied 
g-rammar, until the last winter of my attend- 
ance, at which time it was introduced into the 
public schools. 

Until their removal to Aug-usta, my parents 
trained their children to a strict observance 
of the Sabbath; and so far as possible, to at- 
tendance on public w^orship. Both were of 
good moral principles; though neither pro- 
fessed religion. My mother, however, was 
religiously inclined. Shortly after my con- 
version, she also obtained hope. We were 


baptized on the same day and at the same 

On September 27th, 180*), I married Miss 
Betsy Dickey who was also a resident of 

In 1813 I removed to Smithfield, near 
Siloam, and for three years was eno-ag-ed with 
a partner (Daniel Dickey, Esq., my brother- 
in-law,) in supplying- sand for two g-lass fac- 
tories near Peterboro, furnishing- three thous- 
and bushels per year washed and delivered 
ready for use. 

We procured the sand from Stockbridg-e 
valley. While in this occupation the battle of 
Osweg-o occurred. That was before the ag-e 
of steam and teleg-raph; and we knew nothing* 
of the eng-ag-ement until several days after- 
wards. But while shoveling- sand one day, we 
heard a noise resembling- distant thunder. 
The sky was cloudless and we suspected it to 
be the roar of cannon far away. To satisfy 
ourselves we drove a wooden stake into the 
gfround; and on applying- the ear to it, readily 
recog-nized the report of distant artillery. 
For a time the discharg-es were very rapid; 
but atleng-th g-radually became less frequent. 
We thoug-ht it was the thunder of battle, and 
several days afterward learned that the battle 
of Osweg-o occurred on the very day and hour 
that we heard the reports, May 6, 1814. We 


were distant from Osweg-o about fifty-five 
miles. In October, 1814, when great alarm 
was felt for the safety of Sackets Harbor, and 
laro-e numbers of the Militia were called out 
to assist in its defense, I with many of my 
neighbors was summoned, and answered the 
call. I was soon taken sick, however, and as 
the only means of saving- my life, was per- 
mitted by General Cleveland to return home. 

Having- been broug-ht up a farmer, on the 
fulfillment of the sand contract referred to, I 
resumed that pursuit in the vicinity of my 
new home, and continued it several years. 

In the summer of 1811, at a time when there 
was no special religious awakening- my mind 
became much affected and very tender in view 
of ray hopeless condition as a sinner. What 
circumstances or human instrumentality led 
to this solicitude I do not now remember. I 
felt a strong- conviction that the appointed 
time had come to carry out my long- cherished 
intention to seek Christ and secure the salva- 
tion of my soul. 

At the ag-e of twenty-one I found hope in the 
mercy of the Saviour. I had always from my 
childhood intended to become a Christian, 
whenever I should find what I raig-ht esteem a 
favorable time. 

The exceeding- preciousness of the g-ospel 
and the nearness of God inflamed my soul with 


a holy love. Hence arose my impression of 
duty to publish the gfospel to my fellow men. 
The love of Christ constrained me. 

On the 29th of September, 1811, I was bap- 
tized by Elder Salmon Morton into the fellow- 
ship of the Baptist Church in Madison. My 
mother and Mrs Polly Howard (wife of 
Charles Howard) were baptized on the same 
occasion. I had not yet disclosed to any per- 
son my conviction of duty to enter the min- 
istry. After my removal to Smithfield I 
lived a number of years in a state of relig^ious 
torpidity, "cold," backward, "in the dark," 
and in general neglect of religious duties. 
Occasionally, however, a few rays of divine 
light and comfort would be shed abroad in my 
soul. At such times my mind would be deep- 
ly exercised with a sense of duty to preach 
the gospel to my fellow men. Always refus- 
ing to comply with this conviction of duty, re- 
ligious gloom and depression would invariably 

I sought pardon and peace in vain. I prom- 
ised the Lord, that if he would restore to me 
the light of his countenance, I would no longer 
refuse, if it were His will that I should preach. 
In response the conviction became fastened 
on my mind and remained constantly there, 
that I had departed from my duty without 
leave, and it was good enough for me to return 


without help. One evening" on my way home 
from meeting-, while reflecting- on my spiritual 
state, I resolved in my heart that without 
waiting- long-er I would commence preaching- at 
the first opportunity which should occur. The 
duty was so plain to my mind, and I had al- 
ready neg-lected it so long- with the vain hope 
of recovering- lost graces before making the 
attempt, I would delay no long-er, but casting- 
myself on God, would do his bidding- to the 
best of my ability. No sooner was this reso- 
lution fairly formed than my spiritual dark- 
ness was dissipated and my soul once more 
became unclouded and joyful. With submis- 
sion I had recovered the long- sought light and 
peace. My wife had already been converted 
in a revival, and on the following- Sabbath, 
February 27, 1820, was baptized by Elder 
Dyer D. Ransom. In the evening- of the same 
day, a conference meeting- was held at the 
house of Mr. Parkhurst in Siloam Before it 
commenced, Deacon Sloan took me aside, told 
me that he was convinced that it was my duty 
to preach, and urg-ed me to make trial of my 
g-ift that evening-. I dared not refuse, though 
it was with great reluctance and trembling- 
that I consented. The house was crowded. 
After a few explanatory remarks by Deacon 
Sloan, I read my text "I also will show mine 


opinion," Job 32: 10, and preached as well as 
I could. 

Elder Ransom was then eng-aj^ed as pastor 
of the Church, to preach to them every other 
Sabbath for one year. The Church subse- 
quently approved my ofift, and still later voted 
me a letter of license to preach the <^ospel 
wherever an opportunity occurred, at the 
same time inviting- me to preach to them on 
such Sabbaths as Elder Ransom was not with 
them, to which I acceeded. On the expiration 
of Elder Ransom's term of service, I was 
chosen his successor, to preach every Sab- 
bath. I continued to labor here for more than 
eig"ht years. My salary, on paper, rang-ed 
from S35.00 to $75.00 per annum; but I never 
in any one year received more than SIO.OO in 

Of late years my wife has frequently stated 
that for one year's service all I received was a 
quarter of mutton; but this, if a fact, has 
long- since passed from recollection. 

So much of the balance as was ever paid was 
rendered in produce. 

At the commencement of my labors with 
this Church, my family consisted of four child- 
ren, which number was increased to seven be- 
fore I left. These I was compelled to support 
mainly by manual labor. To do this, required 
my utmost exertions throug-h the week, leav- 


ing- but little time for study or pastoral duties. 
While at work I would think over the sub- 
stance of m}^ sermons for the following- Sab- 
bath; and at evening-, frequently by the lig-ht 
of a pine knot torch, would eng-ag-e in the 
study of the Scriptures. 

In the autumn of 1821 I received ordination. 
The Council was larg-e for those times, and 
consisted of eig-ht ministers, and deleg-ates 
from seven Churches. The ministers in at- 
tendance were: Nathaniel Cole, Moderator; 
Frederick Freeman, Clerk; Obed Warren, 
Dyer D. Ransom, Calvin Philho, Randolph 
Streeter, Nathaniel Otis and Nathan Peck. 
The last named subsequently fell from the 
ministry. The Council convened October 17, 
at the house of Amos Bridg-e. After the 
usual manner I related my Christian exper- 
ience, my spiritual exercises in reference to 
preaching- the g-ospel, and my views of Scrip- 
ture doctrine. About an hour after Council 
had retired for a private session, the Moder- 
ator came to me with a request that I would 
preach before the Council; adding- that one 
member of it, Elder Phillio, declined to ac- 
quiesce in my ordination unless he could first 
hear me. This was soon after the "School of 
the Prophets," now Madison University, had 
been instituted at Hamilton; and Elder Phillio 
was an earnest advocate of Ministerial Educa- 


tion. His objections to my ordination were 
said to arise from his fears that I, having- but 
a common school education, mi<jfht be too illit- 
erate to preach. Most of the Council had al- 
ready heard me preach, but he had not. The 
Moderator and other friends advised me to 
comply with the request and make the attempt 
at once. I consented. They g-ranted me fif- 
teen minutes in which to prepare. I walked 
in meditation into a field as far as I could g-o 
in half the time, and then returned. The 
house was full of people. I announced for 
my text the words of the Saviour, "Behold, 
I send you forth as lambs among- wolves." 
Luke 10: 3. The announcement of the text 
called a smile to the countenance of many of 
the audience, especially of the ministers pres- 
ent. I spoke: First. Of the helplessness of 
the ministry, "as lambs." Second. Their 
dang-ers; ''among- wolves;" arising-, first, from 
foes without the fold; and second, from false 
brethren within the fold. Third. The en- 
courag-ement received from the Great Shep- 
herd. This subject arose entirely new in my 
mind after I had consented to preach. The 
Council afterwards unanimously agreed to 
proceed to ordination. The services were 
held on the following- day in the meeting- house 
at Siloam, then in an unfinished condition; 
Elder Nathaniel Cole preached from the words 


"Let a man so account of us as of the minis- 
ters of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries 
of God." I Cor. 4: 1. 

A few weeks after, I chanced to meet Elder 
Phillio at a Ministerial Conference in Penner. 
After I had preached there also, he remarked 
to me, "Well, brother Brown, I think you will 
be able to preach, Let me give you a word of 
advice. Never attempt to say all you can on 
any subject at any one time; and when you get 
throug-h, always stop." These hints were 
beneficial to me in subsequent years; and 
might be observed wnth benefit by some in the 
ministry at the present day. 

Not long afterwards the meeting house at 
Siloam was completed. It consisted only of 
an audience room without vestibule or galler- 
ies, thirty by forty feet, closely seated; and 
during my continuance as pastor there, was 
generally well filled with hearers on the 

I had no theological instructor, no library 
save a Bible, a Watt's Hymn Book, and a 
pocket edition of Brown's Concordance. With 
these simple aids I spent the next two years 
in studying the Scriptures and committing 
them to memory. In doing this, I so far neg- 
lected secular pursuits that, wnth my very in- 
adequate salary, I expended nearly all my per- 
sonal property, including my only cow^ and a 


span of horses, in tlie support of my family. 

At leno-th I was aroused as from an enchant- 
ment, to a sense of the condition of mv family, 
and hired myself to one of the deacons of the 
Church, to assist in carpenter work, for sev- 
enty-live cents per day. I labored for him 
thirty days, in which time I mastered the 
rudiments of the trade sufficiently to com- 
mence the business as a workman. While I 
remained here, about six years, I labored at 
this trade through the summer seasons, build- 
ing- barns, houses and mills. Three winters I 
took charge of a saw mill; the other winters I 
chopped and drew wood to market, boiled pot- 
ash, etc., preaching every Sabbath. My labors 
were very severe; I had no rest except occas- 
sionally on a stormy day. Sabbaths were the 
most laborious and fatiguing of all. 

During my stay with these people I attended 
many funerals to which I frequently traveled 
five or six miles on foot, sometimes going di- 
rectly from my work, and returning to it again 
the same day. As these services were never 
rewarded, they only increased my pecuniary 
embarrassments. this pastorate the Church and com- 
munity were blest with only one general re- 
vival of religion. I preserved no record of my 
labors or their results while there, and can 
now give but few items from memory. Dur- 


inof the six years that I remained after I was 
ordained the pastor, I baptized sixty or more 
persons. Universalism and drunkenness pre- 
vailed there to a great extent, making- the field 
peculiarly hard for spiritual culture, and ren- 
dering* my labors almost as barren of moral 
as of financial fruits. 

My third son, William, was converted and 
baptized at the age of ten years. He subse- 
quently entered the ministry, in which his 
labors have been crowned with many blessings 
and tokens of the Master's approval. 

Early in 1831 I took him to the Literary and 
Theological Institution at Hamilton, to be ed- 
ucated for the ministry, and, as was supposed 
for the work of a foreign missionary. He was 
my only child then converted. Deacon Olm- 
sted adopted him into his family as a bene- 
ficiary and protege during his educational 
course. To give him up caused me a severe 
struggle. When I had taken him there, and 
was returning home, my mind was so deeply 
absorbed in reflection on the subject, as to be 
almost wholly insensible to everything else. 
I earnestly longed and prayed that God would 
give me another of my children born anew into 
the kingdom of grace, to take his place. To 
the praise of the riches of His grace, I have 
to record that within six months he gave me 

three, and still others before I removed from 
the town. 

The revival spirit at no time f(-r.-^v)ok us, 
conversions bein^r frequent; and ai)out 1833, 
another considerable revival occurred. Dur- 
int)- the first five \'ears of this pastorate, I 
baptized one hundred and twenty-six, most 
of whom had been converted under my 

During- this pastorate of seven years, and 
the five vears next following-, besides dis- 
charg-ing- my pastoral duties I labored in sev- 
enty or eig-hty protracted meeting-s. In these 
meeting's m}^ labors extended from Albany to 
Cayug-a Lake, and from the northern bound- 
ary of Oneida county to central Pennsylvania. 

The young-est person converted, of whom I 
had any knowledg-e was my son Perry, then 
in his eigfhth year- The chief instrument of 
his conversion was a pious lady school teacher. 
He was so small as to find it necessary to 
stand on a seat or bench while he related his 
experience to the Church a few months after- 
wards. The conversion of children, now so 
common, was then a rare event, and g-enerally 
reg-arded with a degree of distrust bordering- 
on incredulity. Owing to his youthfulness 
both his mother and I were reluctant to con- 
sent to his baptism. On many occasions he 
manifested an earnest wish to receive the or- 


dinance. On returning- from school one day, 
he said, "Mother, when you will let me be 
baptized, my mind will be easy." We inter- 
posed no further objections. Not long- after 
this he related his experience before the 
Church for baptism. I subjected him, in their 
presence, to a ri^id examination. Among- 
other questions, I asked: 

"Why do you want to be baptized?" 

"Because Christ was baptized, and I want 
to follow him," was his reply. 

"Would you not rather be sprinkled, than 
g-o into the water?" 

"No sir. The Saviour was baptized in the 
river, and I want to do as he did." 

These and many similar replies were wholly 
of his own mind. All my objections were re- 
moved; and the Church received and I bap- 
tized him. 

During- my pastorate at Augusta, one win- 
try day, brother Eden Green, whom I had 
baptized from the Cong-reg-ational Church, 
and my son Perry, were removing- ice from 
the stream preparatory for baptism, when 
Rensselaer Wickham, a rather eccentric, 
quick-spoken man, a member of the Cong-re- 
g-ational Church, chanced to pass the place, 
and beg-an some trifling- raillery on their em- 
ployment, inquiring- if John had to cut the ice 
from Jordan, etc. They, in turn, asked for 


his Scripture proofs of infant baptism. "Well, 
said he, in his sputtering- manner of speech, 
"I don't know as there are any; but it does 
seem as if the poor little thintrs outrht to have 
something- done for 'em." 

In June, 1853, failing- health compelled me 
reluctantly to retire from the active duties 
of the ministry. I therefore resig-ned my 
charg-e, and removed my family, now consist- 
ing- of myself and wife, to Clinton, where I 
had a son-in-law residing-. 

I still continued to preach occasionally as 
circumstances required, and my health en- 
abled me. 

In the following- February I removed to 
Madison, my former home, and purchased a 
house and a few acres of land, in the cultiva- 
tion of which I spent most of my time for sev- 
eral years. 

While living- here I preached for a few 
months as supply to the Church in Aug-usta, 
now reduced to a small and feeble band. This 
was the last reg-ular preaching* they ever had, 
and not long- afterwards the Church formally 

Two years after my removal to Madison I 
sold my place there and w^ent to Hamilton, 
where my son Perry was living-. (Profes- 
sor P. P. Brown, Jr., Madison University), 
with whom I boug-ht and occupied a home. 


While living- here I supplied the Church in 
Erieville for eleven months, at which place 
with my wife I spent the winter of 1856-7. 

In the spring- of 1858 I was recalled to Mad- 
ison, after the resignation of Rev. L. C. Bates, 
and for the second time accepted the pastoral 
care of the Church which I retained for three 
years, when under the accumulated infirmi- 
ties of ag-e and disease — having- now reached 
my seventieth year — on the first of March, 
1860, I was succeeded by my son-in-law. Rev. 
Carlos Swift, in whose family we spent the 
following- summer, in the old parsonage which 
had twice been our home. I finished my sec- 
ond pastorate in Madison just forty years 
from the day I preached my first sermon, and 
preached my last farewell — the closing- up of 
my ministerial life— from the same text I used 
on that occasion. 

During- this summer I preached two or three 
months to the Church in Stockbridge. The 
first of October following-, I returned to Ham- 
ilton, and ag-ain lived in the house which I 
jointly owned and occupied with my son 
Perry. Here, eig-hteen months later, on April 
2, 1862, my wife, after a very painful but brief 
illness of two weeks, ended a laborious, self- 
denying-, exemplary and useful life. We had 
traveled life's journey pleasantly tog-ether for 
fifty-two years. On the following- Sunday, 


the sixth, her funeral was attended in Madi- 
son, whither we carried her remains. The 
sermon was by Professor E. DodiJfe, of Madi- 
son University, from Heb. 4:'). (Now, March 
^), 1872, and for some time past, President of 
the University). We buried her in the grave- 
yard on the "Indian Opening-," near the for- 
mer site of the old Baptist meeting-house, be- 
tween Madison and Solsville, where sleep 
many of the friends and associates of our early 
years, and where I wish my own dust at last 
to be laid. 


Ha r ley Philander': was born in Augusta, 
July 26, 1810; was twice married, and died at 
Rapids City, Illinois, May 31, 1863. A few 
years before his death he was hopefully con- 
verted and closed his life as an exemplary and 
highly esteemed minister of a Campbellite 

Charles Edzviyi: was born at Augusta, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1813. (His life is given in an auto- 
biography in this book.) 

William: was born in Smithfield, January 1, 

He became a Christian in childhood and 
went, when fourteen years of age, to Hamilton 


to attend the Literary and Theolog-ical Insti- 
tute, becoming- a member of the family of Dea- 
con Olmsted, where he was boarded for such 
service as he could give, out of school hours. 

Evenings, studying- his lesson in Greek, his 
position was "sixth from the candle." 

His mother said of him, "William was al- 
ways a g-ood boy." 

He was ordained to the ministry in 1837, 
and offered his services as a foreig-n mission- 
ary, but for want of funds in the treasury of 
the missionary board, was not sent. 

His life work was as pastor of Baptist 
Churches in New York — in Richfield, New- 
port, Eaton, Pittsford, Hartford, St. Edward 
and Rockwood, from 1837 to 1869. 

In 1837 he was married to Miss Louisa E. 
Wrig-ht, at Westford. 

In 1869 his health failed and he g-ave up his 
pastoral work and started west in the hope of 
reg-aining- it. Stopping- at New Hartford with 
Dr. and Mrs. Griswold, old time friends, he 
suddenly became worse and died Aug-ust 9, 
1869, and was buried at Newport. 

He was a man of superior ability as a min- 
ister, of a g-enial, kindly and sociable disposi- 
tion; beautifully sincere and earnest in his 
work, and was remarkably successful in re- 
storing- harmony and reuniting* Churches in 
which discord and dissention had arisen. 


Of four children, two sons and two daiij^fh- 
ters, two are livin<i|-, at present, 1%7. Mrs. 
Lewis E. (Turley, at Troy, New York, and 
Mrs. Frank H. Woodworth, at San Dieg-o, 

Phillip Perry Brozun, Jr. Sketch of his life, 
from an Obituary, published in a St. Louis 
paper at the time of his death in that city in 
April, 1881. 

*'The Second Baptist Church of St. Louis, 
has met with a great loss in the recent death 
of General Brown. Born in Smithiield, New 
York, October 8, 1823, reared in a Christian 
home, at the ag-e of eig-ht years he was bap- 
tized into the fellowship of the Baptist church, 
by his honored father, Rev. P. P. Brown, so 
well remembered in Central New York. In 
the covenant meeting- preceding- his death, 
General Brown rose and with much feeling- 
said, "This is my jubilee; for fifty years I 
have been a member of a Baptist church, and 
can remember no life outside of it." 

At an early ag-e he eng-ag-ed in teaching- in 
his native State, but his health failing-, he 
went to Kentucky, where he soon recovered 
his health and resumed his profession. In 
December, 1845, he married Miss Sarah Jack- 
son, of Louisville, Kentucky, who with two 
children survives him. Soon after his mar- 
riag-e he went to the Indian Territory, under 

the auspices of the Southern Indian Mission 
Board, and took charg-e of Armstrong- Acad- 
emy, a school for the Choctaws. For five 
years he labored with g-reat success as teach- 
er and missionary, and translated the greater 
part of the New Testament into the Choctaw 
lang-uage. These were years of joy to his 
heart, and many were broug-ht to Christ 
throug-h his efforts. In April, 1851, he re- 
sig-ned and accepted the Principalship of the 
Preparatory Department of Shurtleff Colleg-e, 
Alton, Illinois, in order that he mig-ht at the 
same time pursue his studies in the Colleg-e, 
and then return to the Indians better fitted for 
his work. But his wish was not realized, for 
in May, 1853, he returned to New York and 
entered Madison University in the third term 
of Sophomore year, at the same time contin- 
uing- his work as teacher in the Grammar 

He g-raduated in 1855 and was principal of 
the University Grammar school until Aug-ust, 
1862, when he became Colonel of the One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-seventh New York Infantry. 
He commanded his regiment at Gettysburg-, 
in the First Brig-ade, Third Division, Eleventh 
Army Corps, under Major General Carl 
Schurz, the first day, and Major General O. 
O. Howard, the second and third days of the 


In 18()5 he was appointed Colonel of the 
Seventh Reo^iment of Hancock's Veteran Re- 
serve Corps, and commanded the Military 
Post at Philadelphia. He was breveted Bri*^^- 
adier General, for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vices and tendered an appointment as Colonel 
in the Regular Army at the close of the war. 
This he declined, preferring- the pursuits of 
civil life, and in 1866 he came to Saint Louis 
and engaged in business. 

General Brown was an accurate scholar and 
a deep thinker. Thoroughly rooted in the 
truths of the gospel, it was his constant aim 
to exemplify them in his life. He was pre- 
eminently a pure man, no unchaste word ever 
escaping his lips. He carried into mature 
years the sweet sincerity of childhood, and his 
whole deportment w^as that of a Christian gen- 
tleman. It was his special work to labor for 
the good of young men, of whom he was par- 
ticularly fond, and who returned his affection 
with their fullest confidence. Por years he 
stood in the vestibule of the Second church 
that he might welcome young men who were 
strangers in the city, and make them feel at 
home in God's house, and many such have been 
brought to Christ and saved from the perils 
of a great city by his kind, w^ise counsel. In 
every department of church work he was an 
efficient helper and counsellor. 


Thoug-h firmly trusting- in Christ as a per- 
sonal Saviour, the fear of death at times 
greatly troubled him; but as he entered the 
valley of the shadow, to his pastor he said: 
"All fear of death is o-one; the way is brig-ht; 
I am happy." Two hours later he fell quietly 
asleep in Jesus. 

Into the church, where his presence had so 
long- been a benediction, his remains were 
borne by the strong- arms of young- men whom 
he loved and who loved him, on Sunday after- 
noon, April 10th, and appropriate services 
were conducted by Dr. Schofield and the pas- 
tor, in the presence of a larg-e and tearful as- 
sembly. We laid his body to rest in the beau- 
tiful city of the dead, where soon a monument 
to his memory will be erected by the young- 
men of the Second Church." 

Adonircui Judson Brozvu'. was born in Smith- 
field, March 7, 1826. In 1845 he came to Iowa, 
joining- his brother Charles, at LeClaire. He 
beg-an teaching- school when sixteen years of 
ag-e, in New York, and taug-ht in Iowa three 
years when he first came west. He owned 
and operated the ferry across the Mississippi 
between LeClaire and Port Byron, beg-inning- 
with a flat boat which had to be rowed by hand 
until a horse power boat could be built. 

While teachino-, one of his scholars was 


ISIiss Paulina Rowe, a ver\' l)ri<4ht, handsome 
and attractive little woman, who became his 
wife in 1847. 

In 1S50 he put up a l)uildin*^- in Port Byron 
near the ferry landini^f, and opened a small 
store. Later he and William H. Devore 
formed a partnership under the firm name of 
Brown and Devore, doino^ a general mercan- 
tile business, on quite a lar«-e scale, operating" 
a flouring- mill, packing pork, and handling- 
coal for the Mississippi river steam-boats. 
They did a large business, furnishing- sup- 
plies for Minnesota and Wisconsin lumber- 
men on the upper Mississippi and tributaries. 

He w^as a very capable business man, indus- 
trious, methodical and systematic, of hig-h 
character. What he said could always be de- 
pended on. Brow^n and Devore carried on a 
successful, prosperous business w^hile others 
failed. Mr. Brown was a good neighbor, kind 
and obliging, a public spirited citizen, and a 
model husband and father. He contracted 
consumption and died at Port Byron, Illinois, 
February 11, 1864. 

Wilbur Mission Broxvn: was born in Au- 
gusta, July 2, 1833. Educated at Madison 
University, Hamilton, New York, graduating- 
in 1856. Read law with Goodwin and Mitchell 
at Hamilton and later wnth Pratt and Mitchell 


at Syracuse, becoming- a member of the firm 
of Pratt, Mitchell and Brown, who were for 
many years prominent and leading- lawyers 
of Central New York. He was a fine speaker. 
Close attention to business undermined his 
health and he was an invalid for years before 
his death, w^hich occurred at Syracuse, Jan- 
uary 27, 1898, unmarried, leaving- property to 
the amount of nearly two hundred thousand 
dollars to his relatives and friends. He was 
a man of superior ability, a tireless worker, 
genial, kindly, g-enerous and sociable, stand- 
ing- hig-h in his profession, of high character 
personally and professionally. 

Sarah: w^as born in Smithfield, May 30, 1818. 
She was married, February 10, 1841, at Mad- 
ison, New York, to Emerson Brown, of Litch- 
field. Thoug-h of the same name, her husband 
was not related to our family. For nine years 
after marriag-e her husband lived in Utica, 
working- at his trade as a mason. They then 
went to Litchfield, and boug-ht the old family 
homestead, where she passed the remainder 
of her life, and died October 2, 1879. She was 
an earnest devoted Christian woman, a faith- 
ful Church worker, and a loving- wife, mother 
and home maker. 

An7i: was born in Smithfield, October 22, 
1820. She was married to Dr. A. K. White, 
of Smyrna, who died a year later. 


She went to Kentucky as a teacher, and in 
1850 was married to William Kelly, of Hop- 
kinsville, a Kentucky ])lanter, who died Jan- 
uary 3, 1864, leaving- her for the second time 
a widow and childless. 

Mr. Kelly was a slave holder of the Shelby- 
St. Clare type described by Mrs. Stowe in 
Uncle Tom's Cabin. With his wnfe he visited 
her familv in New York State in 1853. These 
relatives were nearly all radical Abolitionists, 
and an actual livinof and breathino- owner and 
holder of slaves, was to them something- ab- 
horrent. But Mr. Kelly's g-enial, courtly 
manner disarmed hostility and made admiring- 
friends of the members of the family whom he 
met. Mrs. Kelly was a very capable, accomp- 
lished woman She died at the home of her 
brother, Charles, at Lime Spring's, Iowa, in 

Elvira: was born at Smithfield, December 3, 
1829. On January 6, 1852, she was married 
at Holland Patent, New York, to the Rev. 
Carlos Swnft, for many years a successful and 
worthy pastor of Baptist Churches in New 
York, Minnesota and Illinois. 

Mrs. Swift was a zealous, earnest and de- 
voted missionary worker, g-ifted with a fine 
intellect, a winning- personalty and a pleasing- 
voice; for many years Corresponding- Secre- 


tary of the Women's Baptist Home Mission-, 
ary Society, and was active and helpful in 
establishing- the Women's Baptist Training- 
School in Chicag-o. 

She was a successful teacher of Men's Bible 
Classes, often numbering- more than a hun- 
dred members. The work she loved best, 
was at the Pacific Garden Mission in Chicag-o, 
which was g-enuinely Evang-elistic She was 
loved, trusted and leaned upon by those as- 
sociated with her in these fields of labor, and 
now that ag-e and health no long-er permit pub- 
lic work, she exemplifies the quiet g-races of a 
Christian in the homes of her children. 

Chaptick XVIII. 


My grandfather, Nathaniel Brown, was 
born in the town of Leicester, Massachusetts, 
November 5, 1767. Died in Hainbur,i>-, Erie 
county, New York, October 1, 1854. 

My grandmother Brown, whose maiden 
name was Anna Perry, was born in Vermont, 
April 16, 1770. Died in the town of Augusta, 
Oneida county. New York, February 4, 1826. 


Sally, born in Bennington, Vermont, Jan- 
uary 3, 1788. Died in Aug-usta, New York, 
March 20, 1805. 

Phillip Perry, (the name of his maternal 
grandfather), born in Benning-ton, Vermont, 
September 17, 1790. Died in Madison, New 
York, September 23, 1876. 

Nathaniel, born in the town of Kirkland, 
Oneida county, New York, February 9, 1794. 



Died in Manlius, Onondag^a county, New 
York, April 24, 1852. 

Polly, born in Kirkland, New York, July 31, 
1797. Died in Hamburg-, New York, probably 

Sophia, born in Kirkland New York, May 

25, 1800. Died February 4, 1804. 

William, born in Augusta, New York, April 
5, 1803. Died in Eaton, New York, January 
11, 1841. 

Parley, born in Aug-usta, New York, Jan- 
uary 20, 1806. Died in Augusta, September 

26, 1826. 

Rufus, born in Augusta, New York, Novem- 
ber 8, 1808. Died in Solsville, about 1885. 

My mother, Betsy Dickey, was born in 
Wethersfield, Vermont, October 23, 1788. 
She had four brothers, Joseph, William, Dan- 
iel, and Adam, and one sister, all born in 
Wethersfield, Vermont. All died in the State 
of New York except Adam, who died in Iowa. 

Phillip Perry Brown and Betsy Dickey were 
married in Augusta, New York, September 
27, 1809. My mother died in Hamilton, New 
York, April 2, 1862. 



Harley Philander — Born in Aut^usta, New 
York, July 30, 1810. Died at Rapids City, 
Illinois, May 31, 1863. 

Charles Edwin — Born in Aiio-usta, New 
York, February 23, 1813. Died at Ottumwa, 
Iowa, July 23, 1901. 

William — Born in Smithfield, New York, 
January 1, 1816. Died at New Hartford, New 
York, Aug-ust 9, 1869, 

Sarah — Born in Smithfield, New York, May 
30, 1818. Died in Litchfield, New York, Octo- 
ber 2, 1879. 

Ann — Born in Smithfield, New York, Octo- 
ber 22, 1820. Died at Lime Springs, Iowa, 
September 28, 1870. 

Phillip Perry, Jr. — Born in Smithfield, New 
York, October 8, 1823. Died in Saint Louis, 
in April, 1881. 

Adoniran Judson — Born in Smithfield, New 
York, March 7, 1826, Died at Port Byron, 
Illinois, February 11, 1864. 

Elvira — Born in Smithfield, New York, Dec- 
ember 3, 1829. 

Wilbur M. — Born in Augusta, New York, 
July 3, 1833. Died at Syracuse, New York, 
January 27, 1898. 



Benjamin Lyon — Born in Rhode Island, 
April 5. 1770. Died in Russia, New York, 
October 24, 1826. 

Marg-aret Duncan — Born December 23, 1780. 
Died in Openheim, New York, July 5, 1820. 

Benjamin Lyon and Margaret Duncan were 
married the seventh of May, 1801. 


Charles W.— Born March 4, 1802, Died in 
Watertown, New York, February, 1866. 

Eleanor— Born March 20, 1803. Died in 
March, 1806. 

Julia Ann— Born June 5, 1804. Died Aug- 
ust, 1865. 

Eliza — Born September 30, 1806. Died 
December, 1871. 

Charlotte— Born September 29, 1808. Died 
Aug-ust, 1829. 

Mary— Born July 8, 1811. Died June, 1888. 

Frances — Born April 15, 1813. Died June 
12, 1887. 

John — Born February 7, 1815. Died Dec- 
ember, 1831. 


Geor^re Duncan- Born February 20, 1817. 
Died March, 1856. 

Second marria^fe. Benjamin Lyon and Ros- 
anna Hall were married in Russia, New York, 
May 26, 1822. 


Marg-aret M.— Born March 7, 1823. Died, 
Muscatine, Iowa, Aug-ust 11, 1904. 

Lucretia Caroline— Born October 19, 1824. 

Benjamin and Elisha (twins) — Born July 17, 

Charles E. Brown and Prances Lyon were 
married at Little Falls, New York, Septem- 
ber, 26, 1838. 


Benjamin Perry — Born in Norway, Herki- 
mer county. New York, July 30, 1839. Died, 
by drowning, near Maquoketa, Iowa, June 20, 


The following- extract is from the record in 
the family Bible, in father's hand writing: 

"Benjamin Perry Brown was drowned in 


the Maquoketa river near Maquoketa, Jackson 
county, Iowa, June 20, 1848. 

"On the morning- of the day on which he 
was drowned, he read with his parents and 
young-er brother the first chapter of Mark." 

"When floating on Life's troubled sea 
By storms and tempests driven, 

Hope with her radiant finger points 
To brighter scenes in Heaven." 

"She bids the anguished heart rejoice, 

Though earthly ties are riven, 
W^e still may hope to meet again 

In yonder peaceful Heaven." 

At the instance of his mother this verse 
was cut on his tomb stone: 

"Shed not for him the bitter tear; 

Or give the heart to vain regret, 
'Tis but the casket that lies here; 

The gem that filled it, sparkles yet." 

Charles Perry — Born in Warren, Herkimer 
county. New York, October 30, 1840. 

James DeGrush — Born in LeClaire town- 
ship, Scott county, Iowa, February 9, 1846. 

Georg-e Lyon and William Carlos, (twins), 


Born in Norway, Herkimer county, New York, 
July 29, 1853. Georg-e L died from injuries 
received while couplino" cars at St. Paul Junc- 
tion, Minnesota, September 1, 1871. 


Rev. Charles E. Brown, born February 23, 
1813. Died July 23, 1901. 

Prances Lyon Brown, born April 15, 1813. 
Died June 12, 1887. 


Charles Perry Brown and Miss Adeline P. 
Fall, married by me, at Vernon Springs, 
Howard county, Iowa, Aug-ust 30, 1866. 

James DeGrush Browm and Miss Ella T. 
Dye, at Owatonna, Minnesota, married by Rev. 
Enoch Dye, on May 13, 1874. 

William Carlos Brown and Miss Mary Ella 
Hewitt, married by meat Lime Springs, How- 
ard county, Iowa, June 3, 1874. 

In 1875 three grand-children, all daughters, 
were born, one in each family. 

Virinie F., to James and Ella, at Lime 
Springs, Iowa, on April 5. 

Georgia Frances, to Will and Mary Ella, at 
Wilton, Iowa, July 23. 


Edith Adeline, to Charles and Addie, at Ot- 
tumwa, Iowa, Aug-ust 3. 


Charles Perry Brown, born October 30, 
1840, in the town of Warren, in Herkimer 
county. New York. 

Adeline Phoebe Fall, born near Beloit, 
Wisconsin, February 10, 1849. 

Charles Perry Brown and Miss Adeline 
Phoebe Fall were married Aug-ust 30, 1866, at 
Vernon Spring-s, Howard county, Iowa, by 
Rev. Charles E. Brown. 


Frances Lyon, born at Cresco, Iowa, 
October 6, 1868; died at McGreg-or, Iowa, 
Aug-ust 31, 1869, and buried in the family 
lot of Rev. Georg-e W. Fall at Cresco, Iowa. 

Benjamin Perry, born at McGreg-or, 
Iowa, December 11, 1869. 

Charles Edwin, born at Ottumwa, Iowa, 
November 9, 1872, and died there October 14, 


Edith Adeline, horn at Ottumwa, Iowa, 
Auo;-ust 3, 1875; died at the Glockner Sani- 
tarium, Colorado Springrs, Colorado, June 6, 

Louise Fall, born at Ottumwa, Iowa, Jan- 
uary 28, 1881. 


Benjamin Perry Brown and Miss Laura 
Kendall, were married at Ottumwa, Iowa, May 
8, 1895, by Rev. L. F. Berry. 


Prances, born at Ottumwa, Iowa, March 4, 

Mary Louise, born at Ottumwa, Iowa, Aug"- 
ust 20, 1905. 

Louise Fall Brown and Lester M. Linton 
were married May 2, 1905, at Ottumwa, Iowa, 
by Rev. P. A. Johnson. 


Adeline Fall Brown, died at Boulder, Col- 
orado, April 20, 1903. 


Frances Lyon, died at McGregor, Iowa, 
August 31, 1869. 

Charles Edwin, died at Ottumwa, Iowa, Oct- 
ober 14, 1874. 

Edith Adeline, died at Colorado Springs, 
Colorado, June 6, L893. 

Prances Lyon is buried in the family lot of 
her grandfather. Rev. George W. Fall, in the 
Cresco cemetery. 

Adeline Fall Brown, Charles Edwin and 
Edith Adeline, are buried in the family lot in 
the Ottumwa cemetery, at Ottumwa, Iowa. 


James D. Brown was born near LeClaire, 
Scott county, Iowa, February 9, 1846. 

Ella T. Dye was born at North Brookfield, 
Madison county. New York, December 30, 

James D. Brown and Miss Ella T. Dye were 
married at Owatonna, in Steele county, Min- 
nesota, May 13, 1874, by Rev. E. P. Dye, 
father of the bride. 


DYE imoWN. 

Vinnie Frances, born at Lime Sprin<rs, in 
Howard county, Iowa, April 5, 1875. 

Georg-e Edwin, horn at Tvime Sprintrs, Iowa, 
May 30, 1876. 

Frances Margaret, born at Lime Spring's, 
Iowa, September 1, 1879. Died at Lime 
Spring-s, Iowa, September 20, 1882. 

Frank Log-an, born at Lime Spring's, Iowa, 
January 29, 1887. 


George Edwin Brown and Jennie Olivia 
Johnson were married in Ottumwa, Iowa, 
March 4, 1903, by Rev. F. G. Davies. 


Lloyd William Brown, born March 2, 1904. 
Marion Frances Brown, born April 24, 1906. 


William C. Brown, born at Norway, Her- 
kimer county. New York, July 29, 1853. 


Mary Ella Hewitt, born at McHenry, in 
McHenry county, Illinois, July 19, 1854. 

William C. Brown and Miss Mary Ella 
Hewitt were married at Lime Springs, in 
Howard county, Iowa, June 3, 1874, by Rev. 
C. E. Brown. 


Georg-ia Prances, born at Wilton, Iowa, 
July 23, 1875. 

Charles Edwin, born at Burling-ton, Iowa, 
September 11, 1877. Died at Lime Spring's, 
Iowa, September 11, 1882. 

Lura Belle, born at Lime Springs, Iowa, 
July 17, 1880. Died at Beardstown, Illinois, 
February 25, 1882. 

Bertha Adelaide, born at Lime Spring-s, 
Iowa, September 2, 1882. 

Marg-aret Heddens, born at Saint Joseph, 
Missouri, March 28, 1891. 


Georg-ia Prances Brown and Dr. Prank 


li^Uis Pierce, were married in Chicaj^'o, April 
12, 1899. by Rev. Percival Mclntire. 


William Brown Pierce, born in Chicag-o, 
March 6, 1900. 

John Henry Pierce, born in Chicaj^o, July 
8, 1906. 

Bertha Adelaide Brown and Dr. Kellog-g- 
Speed, were married in Chicag-o, April 12, 
1904, by Rev. John H. Hopkins. 


Bertha Brown Speed, born in Chicago, 
October 8, 1905. 


Lura Belle, died at Beardstown, Illinois, 
February 25, 1882; and is buried in the family 
lot at Lime Springs, Iowa. 

Charles Edwin, died at Lime Springs, Iowa, 
September 11, 1882; and is buried there in the 
family lot in the cemetery. 

^^ ■ ^ 









OCTOBER 6, 1901. 



Letter from Wilbur M. Brown, referring 
TO original edition of these recollections. 



Halt, of the oi" Representatives, / 
Des Moines. Iowa, Thursday, February 13,1902. \ 

House met pursuant to adjournment, Speak- 
er Eaton presiding-. 

Prayer was offered by Rev. E. G. Beyer, of 
Mavnard, Iowa. 

report of committee appointed to draft RESOI.UTIONS 

Mr. Speaker — Your committee appointed to draft reso- 
lutions of respect to the niemor)' of the Hon. Charles E. 
Brown, respectfully submit the following: 

Whereas, Rev. Charles E. Brown, an honored mem- 
ber of the Seventeenth General Assembly of Iowa from 
Howard county, died in Ottumwa, July 23, 1901, and 

Whereas, The life and character of the deceased were 
such as to command our love and esteem, and his public 
services to the state and countr3^ were of such distinction 
as to demand the respect and gratitude of his fellow citi- 
zens; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That in his death the state has lost an able 
conscientious citizen, a man who suffered the inconven- 
ience of pioneer life in the cause of religion and state, that 
we extend to his children our sincere sympathy in their 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered in the Journ- 


al of the House, and the Chief Clerk of the House be in- 
structed to present an engrossed copy thereof to his sons. 

A. W. Buchanan, 
W. K. Barker, 
Raymond C. I^angan, 


Mr. Buchanan moved the adoption of the 
report of the committee. 

Adopted unanimously by rising- vote. 

The following- speeches by Buchanan of 
Wapello, Barker of Howard, Langan of 
Clinton, on the death of Rev. Mr. Brown, were 
ordered printed in the Journal on motion of 
Warren of Marion. 

Mr. Buchanan said: 

Mr. Speaker — It is not the intention to take the time of 
this House in a long- eulogy of the deceased. His life of 
usefulness to the state should not be passed without some 
little comment. 

Charles E. Brown left his home in New York in 1842. 
He came to the territory of Iowa as a pioneer missionary. 
He was a man of excellent judgment, strong character, 
and of a progressive nature, and could have attained a 
high place in the commercial world, but preferred rather 
to devote his life to the betterment of his fellow men. He 
gained no great wealth, but was able to give his sons an 
education that has given to the state men eminent in the 
railroad and commercial world. 

It was not my privilege to know the deceased personally; 
coming to our city at the advanced age of over four score 
years he made but few acquaintances, but those who knew 
him well, held him in high esteem. 

Being possessed of his full mental faculties he saw the 
approaching end and was full of the faith, and died as he 

had lived, belicvinfi;- if a man die he shall live aj,'-ain. 
Mr. Speaker, I move the rules be suspended and this 
resolution be adopted by a rising- vote. 

Mr. Barker said: 

Mr. Speaker— It is for us to pause a moment in our leg- 
islative duties that our thoughts may revert to the early 
pioneers of our state who have passed the way of all mor- 
tality—that we may pay our tributes of respect to their 
memory, their virtues, and their worth. 

The life of the subject of these memorial resolutions was 
measured by more than four score and eight years and 
about half that long and useful life was passed in Howard 

It therefore seems proper that I, as the representative of 
that county in this general assembly, should add my con- 
tribution to his worth as a man and as a citizen of our 
county and state. 

Charles E. Brown was born in Oneida county, N. Y., 
February 23, 1813, and died in Ottumwa, July 23, 1901. 

He studied for the ministry and was a graduate of Mad- 
ison university. New York. He was married in 1838 to 
Miss Frances Lyon, who was his companion for nearly 
fifty years in his journey upon earth. Three sons survive 
him, two of them being worthy citizens of Wapello county, 
Iowa, and the third has gained a national reputation in 
railroad circles by rising from the humble position of 
brakeman to that of general manager of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy railroad, and then vice-president of 
the L^ake Shore & Michigan Southern railway, and is at 
this time vice-president of the New York Central. 

Soon after leaving college, the subject of these resolu- 
tions concluded to devote his life to the service of his 
fellowman as a missionary. Leaving his home of compar- 
ative comfort in New York, he came west in 1842 
and settled in the territory of Iowa about two miles from 
Maquoketa, in Jackson county, and for the greater part of 
the next twelve years he devoted his time to his work 
among the early settlers, from Davenport northward to 

Minnesota, facings the storms of winter among- the pioneers 
with that tireless energy and zeal which was characteristic 
of him in any cause he espoused. 

At or about the organization of Howard county, he set- 
tled there and was elected its first county superintendent 
of schools. 

He was also an active and an honored member of the 
Seventeenth General Assembly, serving acceptably in that 
body as representative of Howard county. 

Throug-hout his life, whether in the cabin or more pre- 
tentious dwelling-, he was always the same social, de- 
vout Christian gentleman, practicing in his daily walk 
those precepts he sought to inculcate in others. He was 
intensely lo3'al and patiiotic and when his conclusions 
were reached upon any subject, they were definite and 

He advocated his religious and political opinions with 
earnestness, sincerity, and fidelity, and he was never 
vacilating or uncertain. He had a clear head and a strong 
mind. He was never known to compromise with what he 
believed to be a wrong. 

In short, his life was spent in the service of mankind and 
it was his greatest pleasure to aid in the uplifting of all 
humanity and for those in affliction he was generous and 
was ever ready with kindly sympathy and assistance. 

When the infirmities of age were gathering about him, 
when he realized his time on earth was short, without sick- 
ness, without pain, and without a murmur, he folded his 
hands across his breast and lapsed into that dreamless 
sleep from which there is no awakening upon earth, but he 
had an abiding faith and trust that, in a better world, he 
would awaken in the likeness of his Master that he had 
served so long and faithfully. 

I second the motion of the gentleman from Wapello to 
adopt the resolutions. 

Mr. Lang-an said : 

Mr. Speaker — A word and I am done. 

I shall not attempt to give a biographical sketch of the 

deceased, nor dwell at leii<j;^th upon his private or public 
life. That has been done by those more intimate with him 
than I. However, it should be an especial pleasure to every 
young man to chronicle to the world some characteristics of 
those who have lived long^ and served the interests of the 
state well and good. 

The subject of these resolutions, Rev. C. E. Brown, a 
member of the Seventeenth General Assembly of Iowa, 
settled in Jackson county, adjoining- my home county on 
the north, some sixty years ago. In the wildnerness of 
that county, with but the meager compensation of one hun- 
dred dollars per year, he served the scattered population as 
a missionary, administering to them the consolation of his 
sacred calling. Coming from New York an educated 
young man, possessing qualifications which would have 
entitled him to recognition amid the environments of his 
own state, he demonstrated his earnest and sacrificing 
nature. The duties of his vocation were ever pleasant. 
His labors for religion and state were ceaseless. While he 
expounded the truths of the gospel from the rudely de- 
vised and primitively constructed pulpit, he exemplified 
good citizenship by his daily life. His unselfish spirit pre- 
vailed through life. Death only could release him from his 
cbosen work A few lines from his home paper tells the 
reward of his beautiful life. 

''Death came in his eighty-ninth year, July 23, 1901, at 
Ottumwa, Iowa, from a gradual failing of his vital powers, 
and the end was peaceful and painless." 

What more in this world can we ask for than a happy 
death at the completion of life's labors ? 

Thus ended a man who made the world better for having 
lived, better for having played a part on the stage of life. 
Thus ended a pioneer, a type of man which from- 
natural and apparent reasons, is rapidly passing away 
Each general assembly records on its journal the names of 
former members who are called to "the undiscovered 
country, from whose bourne no traveler returns," 

Too much cannot be said of the man who braved the 
vicissitudes which beset the path of the pioneer. No inco- 

miutii expresses or contemplates the suffering endured 
by him. The proud State of Iowa stands as a monument to 
his labors. His work is a matter of history. Hardly had 
the hand of the pioneer father felled the oak of the forests 
and placed it as a log- of the sheltering- cabin till duty's 
cause called a son to service on the battle field. Some re- 
turned to enjoy the labor of the past, others sleep beneath 
the g-round they consecrated with their lives. 

We can never fully estimate the debt of gratitude we 
owe the pioneer. Only the highest type of the unselfish 
man could have faced the task. His work had the force of 
the mythical wand of magic and transformed the once im- 
penetrable forests and prairies of Iowa to fields teeming in 
wealth. A word of consideration is, at the best, but mea- 
ger recognition of service tendered the state when there 
was a scarcity of learning but a broad field of conquest. 
That service made possible the bright galaxy of Iowa 

statesmen now at Washington. It made possible a Wilson, 

a Shaw, a DoUiver, and an Allison. 

Mr. Speaker, let the name of him who has passed away 
be cherished by the members of this assembly; let the his- 
tory of his life be preserved as the reward of one who nur- 
tured society in its infancy with the sustaining and sooth- 
ing influence of a guardian during the wild and tumultuous 
period of pioneer days. 

c^^^,^-7 x — ^,^3^-3^ 






Delivered at Calvary Baptist Church, 


October 6. 1901. 


Pastor of the Church. 

O ■ Q 

Feb. 20, 1813— July 23, 1901 

"Servant of God, well done! 

Rest from th)^ loved employ; 
The battle fought, the victory won, 

Enter thy Master's joy. 

The pains of death are past, 

Labor and sorrow cease. 
And life's long- warfare closed at last. 

His soul is found in peace. 

Soldier of Christ, well done! 

Praise be thy new employ; 
And while eternal ages run, 

Rest in thy Saviour's joy." 


''Beware lest thou forget the Lord, which brought thee 
forth. " Ueut. 6: 12. 

"Lest we forget," "lest we forget." O how easily we 
lose sight, in better times, of the days of privation and 
toil! "Beware." Elsewhere Moses says, (8: 2) "And thou 
shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy God led 
thee these forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee 
and to prove thee." 

It seems strange that memory should need exhortation 
and command, or that the church of God should require 
such oft reminder of the past, but, alas, we are prone to 
forget, in prosperous days, the way by which we have been 
led in the initial times of trial and testing. Families over- 
look their old environments, sons and daughters happy in 
the possession of rich estates and the luxuries of wealth, 
forget the toil of father and mother or of grandfather and 
grandmother at the forge, or the bench, or behind the 
plow, bending to the laborious accumulation of the things 
their children now enjoy. 

In the same way, Moses, casting his eye forward, wise 
statesman that he was, as well as prophet, foresaw the 
time when the children of Israel, blest in the enjoyment 
of things for which they had labored not, would forg-et the 
hardships endured by the fathers in an early day and the 
God that brought them out; therefore he urged them to 
recall these things often and so keep in a humble and 
grateful and reverent frame of mind toward the Giver of 
every good and perfect gift. 

We are not free from a like peril. Ours is a wonderful 
heritage in this Iowa land. Prosperity beyond the com- 



mon lot of man has crowned the efforts that have been put 
forth, and we find ourselves in the midst of richly pro- 
ductive conditions. These have come to us, under God's 
kind hand, as a legacy from the past. "Other men labored 
and ye are entered into their labors;" or the fruits of their 
labors. "Great and goodly cities, which thou buildest not, 
and houses full of all good things which thou filledst not, 
and wells which thou diggedst not, and vine3'ardi and 
olive trees which thou plantedst not." 

Now, we rejoice in this blessed inheritance; but there is 
danger here. Let us listen to the prudent admonition of 
Moses, the man of God, spoken for people in just such 
prosperous surroundings as belong to us today in this fair 
state of ours: "When thou shalt have eaten and be full, 
then beware lest thou forget the Lord, which brought thee 
forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage." 
The lesson is plain. In days of affluence and ease remem- 
ber the beginning days, when God's succoring hand was 
especially manifest, lest we forget God and along with 
God, the sources of all present, past and future good. 

The recent sixtieth annual session of the Davenport Bap- 
tist Association was sadly accentuated by the death of the 
venerable and beloved father in the faith. Rev. Charles E. 
Brown, one of the first preachers of the gospel in this 
region. We are hereby led to a recall of the early incidents 
and events that marked the beginning days of our Baptist 
intetests in this state. 

Our fathers in the faith were aggressive, and we began 
Baptist history right along with the records of the organ- 
ization of the territory. From earliest times this country 
lying west of the Mississippi and along the forty-first and 
forty-second parallels of latitude was recognized as a 
choice spot for homes and farms and cities. A veritable 
garden of the Lord, it seemed to the earliest comers, and 
the tales they tell of its park-like appearance as their eyes 
first rested upon it are interesting to hear and we catch a 
bit of that first enthusiasm as we listen. 

But the enthusiasm and vim of these first settlers, seek- 
ing lands and houses and earthly things, was watched by 


the hif^h purpose of tlie early preachers of i\\p f^ospel. 
Witness the earnestness of soul and enerf;^y of hand and 
foot, which such men as those devoted seekers of souls and 
spiritual thing^s, the Iowa Rand of Andover students, ex- 
emplified, as they left the snug- ensconcements of the east 
and plung-ed into these new and untried but not unpromis- 
ing surroundings. And so our Baptist fathers were here 
ere the Redman had disappeared or the buffalo had ceased 
to tramp across our fertile western hills and prairies. 
Chapels arose with saw mills, and churches with factories, 
and preceding- these, the land prospector and the scout of 
civilization shared the rude but kindly hospitality of the 
plains with the hardy and hopeful pioneer preacher and 
missionary. In this, these noble men were but proving- 
their calling- of the Ivord and carrying out that good spirit 
of the first evangels of the gospel, who in answer to the 
Macedonian cry that kept ever leading farther out and on, 
were found "in journeyings often, in perils of waters, in 
perils of robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in 
perils by the heathen (i. e. other countrymen), in perils in 
the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in 
perils among false brethren, in weariness and painfulness, 
in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, 
in cold and nakedness." Of such good witness and testi- 
mony Paul gives record in II Cor. 11: 26-27. The early 
workers in the planting of churches and Sunday schools of 
our faith and order in Iowa, had their share of these divine 

We are familiar with the fact that the first church to be 
organized in Iowa was that at Danville, in 1834, under 
Elder John Logan, a name since honored in the nation, 
who came across from the Illinois interior to help form the 
initial Baptist nucleus. That was down Burlingtonwards 
at old Long Creek, as then called. In 1839 the Home Mis- 
sion Society commissioned Calvin Greenleaf to come over 
from Griggsville, Illinois, and organize the growing Bap- 
tist band at Davenport into a church society. Rev. Titus 
Gillett of Rock Island, completing the organization. About 
the same time Hezekiah Johnson, the father of Dr. Frank- 


lin Johnson, of the University of Chicago, who very appro- 
priately, a few years since, preached the sixtieth anniver- 
sary sermon at Davenport, and Ezra Fisher, who is known 
as the first pastor, at Davenport, appear upon the records. 
These two started from the latter place a little later on the 
venturesome and heroic overland journey to Oregon. The 
hopeful and self-sacrificing spirit of those days may be 
judged from the further fact that when the first state or 
rather territorial convention was held in 1842 at Iowa City, 
M. W. Rudd, late of Washington, Iowa, walked seventy-five 
miles to attend the meeting, helped along a little by hold- 
ing on to the pommel of another brother's saddle. 

Rev. S. H. Mitchell in his Historical Sketch of Iowa Bap- 
tists, to which thesaurus of biographic material we are not 
a little indebted, also instances the fact that at the time 
when the first meeting of the Davenport association was 
held at Davenport in 1842, a missionary and his wife trav- 
eled fort}^ miles to attend the meeting, startling even the 
primitive settlement of Davenport as he drove in "on a one 
horse cart, constructed out of the hind wheels and axle of 
an old lumber wagon, with a couple of old rails for thills 
and a bundle of oats for a cushion " 

It was at this meeting and that of the territorial conven- 
tion a month or two previous that Rev, Charles E. Brown's 
name first appears, though he had been preaching and vis- 
iting for some months at Maquoketa and in the vicinity. 
He took a prominent part in the organization of the 
churches into associational form. At this time there were 
seven within range. Rock Island being at first included. 
It was stated by Brother Brown as a curious occasion for 
the associational date that it was so fixed as to avoid the 
sickly season— when is that? — and also to bring the meet- 
ings at a time when fruits, vegetables and chickens would 
be abundant. The association still follows in a way this 
wholesome precedent. 

The brother who came to this first association in the 
modest make-shift of a conveyance, above referred to, 
caring more, as was right, for the high requirements of the 
occasion than for its conveniences or discomforts, was none 


other, as his own "l*orsoiial Keniitiisceiices"' tell, than 
Father Brown. He had lately settled as missionary pastor 
at the Forks of Maquoketa, and felt that as a faithful stew- 
ard he must not miss the meeting-. But how should he and 
his wife attend, the onlj' vehicle within reach having- left 
the settlement? Here is his own characteristic account of 
the affair: "I secured the loan of the hind wheels and 
axletree of a Hoosier lumber wagon, went to the fence and 
got poles suitable for thills, and whit a board on wooden 
pegs, we were soon ready for the forty mile trip.'' He 
adds somewhat facetiously, in view of the wild sensations 
his arrival made, "Although road carts were not as popular 
and common then as now, we felt not the slightest embar- 
rassment in driving up in front of the residence of Dr. 
Witherwax." The meetings, he says, were held in a small 
frame building on Front street, the Baptist church having 
been planted here three years before, in Septeinber, 1839. 
A brick meeting-house, however, was erected shortly after 
the association, at the southeast corner of Fourth and 
Brady streets. 

The first meeting of the Davenport association, with all 
its limitations, is said by Brother Brown, to have been one 
of sweet and precious interest, and after singing the old- 
time hymn, 

''From Whence doth this Union Arisef' 

"the brethren reluctantly parted to their homes and to 
their work." These, he continues, "were not days of rail- 
road coaches and cushioned carriages, but emigrant trails, 
unbridged rivers, creeks and sloughs, old lumber wagons, 
prairie schooners and old dilapidated saddles. But precious 
enjo3'ment in this pioneer missionary life and work. How 
sweet the memory still." Unbridged rivers, however, and 
other hindrances did not deter such resolute spirits as 
these. Once cut off by a washout in the prairie, when on 
his way with Mrs. Brown to the meeting of the first terri- 
torial convention at Iowa City, with a sharp cut of the 
whip he leaped his horse, wagon and all, across the chasm, 
gathering together his scattered effects as best he could, 


on the other side of the gully; and at another time when 
arrested by a swollen stream, on the way to Mt. Pleasant 
(to the second territorial convention), he cut a grape-vine, 
swam the stream and pulled over the wagon piece meal, 
putting it together again on the farther bank. In this con- 
nection we may mention the humble manner in which 
Father Brown and his little family started out on the over- 
land journey from Chicago. They had already been a 
score of days coming by canal boat and steamer from the 
interior of York state. 

Here was the manner of the home-stretch, heroic and 
handsome, in its way: 

"On Monday we hired a man from Rockford who had 
been in with a load, to take us and oar goods to Savanna, 
on the Mississippi river. It was a lumber wagon. After 
loading the boxes, the rocking chair, which we had brought 
from our New York home, was fastened on top of one of 
the boxes; a little chair from a furniture store was fastened 
to the side of the rocker. My good wife cheerfully mounted 
and took her seat in the rocking chair and the youngest 
child in her lap and the other one by her side, remarking, 
'Now this is first rate.' I took a seat on a box beside the 
driver with our feet resting on the whiffletrees, ready for a 
trip of two hundred miles to our future home in the state 
of Iowa." So they made their advent on the scene of their 

That was what it cost in endurance and hard labor, to 
start things agoing religiously in these parts. Some idea 
of the compensations of the pioneers may be learned from 
the records of that first winter following the association, 
spent by Mr. and Mrs. Brown, because of the severity of 
the weather, in Davenport. "For weeks," he says, "in the 
dead of winter we had revival meetings in the court house 
at Rock Island, and by reason of the solid ice bridge on the 
Mississippi river the Davenport people could attend and 
take part in the meetings over the water, and did and 
shared largely in the results of the good work. Over forty 
were received by baptism into the two churches.'' Daven- 
port alone received eighteen by baptism and fifteen by 


Following this meeting-, lOlder Brown went up the river 
and org-anized the churches at Camanche and Port Byron, 
LeClaire having been in existence since the spring of 1839. 

In those days Davenport Association bulked larger than 
it does today. It covered all the territory of Northern 
Iowa and reached over into Minnesota. Iowa City in its 
further bounds, the then capital of the state, was North 
America's fartherest western mission point. There was 
no mission station between it and the coast. This was true 
as late as 1845. There were indeed waste places in Iowa in 
those da3's. and wide distances intervened. One worthy 
brother, asked to visit a certain field, wrote, "I have no way 
to go, but to walk or ride an ox.'' And yet the brethren of 
the state board by dint of much sacrifice, managed to meet 
and consult and devise in the interest of the churches. We 
shall never know the hardships necessitated or the pains 
and perils passed through. State Missionary Smith one 
time in the early days started out on horseback to attend 
the Boat's meeting at Dubuque. It was freezing cold and 
growing colder. The first day he managed to get from 
Iowa City to Anamosa, through the bitter wind. The next 
morning, in spite of the protestations of his friends, frail 
man that he was physically, he set out in the teeth of a 
blizzard, across what was called Bowen's Prairie, reaching 
at night-fall a little cabin at what is now Monticello, half 
frozen, but still pressing on. The next day he was off 
again for Cascade, stumbling along through the drifting 
snow, and the next day, faint but pursuing, he reached 
his coveted destination at Dubuque, and there met the 
brethren and transacted the work of the lyord. 

Ah, those were days of heroism, and we do well to honor 
the faith and fortitude of such men in laying the founda- 
tions of our work in the state. There was rich promise in 
the soil and the stimulus of a contagious spirit of hope and 
expectation in the air, but morally and religiously it was a 
time that tried men's heaits. Those of us who were ac- 
customed to hear Elder Brown on his oft repeated visits to 
the scene of his former labors — one of the amenities of his 
later days, for which he and we are indebted to his son, 


Superintendent Brown, formerly General Manager of the 
C. B. &Q., now Vice-President of the Ivake Shore Railroad, 
who also, we may say, is the thoughtful publisher of this 
booklet — those of us, who heard his terse and direct re- 
minders of former days, will not soon forget one incident 
he used to relate with zest. We can see him now as he 
told it to us, half leaning on his cane, the old Rock Island 
court house cane (cut from its timbers) which he thought 
so much of. 

"When we came," he used to say, "to the Forks of the 
Maquoketa, wife and I, it was new ground, and we were far 
from our old friends and among strangers. We found very 
few at first that cared for the things of Christ, and a thick 
mist had settled down upon everything, far and near, that 
made the burden of our homesickness all the more heavy. 
But out on my rounds, looking for the lost sheep of the 
house of Israel, the wind came up, the sun suddenly broke 
through the clouds and with it came a sense of God's help 
and a new lifting of the heart. I saw the broad fields and 
forests and the beautiful landscape, dotted with new homes, 
as I had not seen it before, and I thanked God that he had 
led me to cast my lot with this people to lead their 
thoughts to heavenly things; and what was best of all, as 
I rode up on my horse toward the log hut where we were 
stopping, I saw my dear wife coming out to see me, with a 
new light in her eye, and as she met me she said, 'Charles, 
we have come to Iowa to do good, and will stay and trust 
in the Lord'.' It was all different after that, and the work 
went right on.'' 

It was a good work in those days of the forties and fifties. 
There was a freedom and sprightliness in the atmosphere, 
a cheery temper to the soul, and though money was not 
plentiful, men gave cordially and promptly to all good 
objects, and sometimes wuth a liberality that shames the 
tame generosity of these more prosperous days. 

Dr. Dexter P. Smith, to whom reference has already 

been made, at one time missionary (from 1845 to 1851) of 

the Home Mission Society at Iowa City, and afterwards 

(from 1851 to 1859) in the employ of the American Sunday 



School Union, as general missionary for Iowa, tells this 
unique incident of those times. "February 17, 1856, I was 
in Davenport. In the morning 1 preached in the Congrega- 
tional church and received a collection of $60.25. In the 
evening I addressed a union meeting at the Baptist church. 
Cash collection, Sl()3.()0. Slips of paper were circulated 
for subscriptions. Upon one of these small slips was the 
following subscription: 'Martin Reisorf, one thousand dol- 
lars (SI, 000), payable at Cook & Sargent's Bank, Davenport, 
October 2, 1856.' As no one of the friends knew any one 
in Davenport by the name of Martin Reisorf, the subscrip- 
tion was valued at a discount of about one hundred per 
cent. The next morning, with a friend, I inquired at 
Cook cS: Sargent's Bank, but the officials knew of no such 
person, which strengthened the belief that it was a mere 
hoax, and that we should hear no more of it. But my own 
mind was strongly impressed that God had touched the 
heart of some one, and disposed him to do a noble thing 
for the good cause. Just before the subscription matured, 
upon the streets of Davenport, a stranger met the Rev. E. 
M. Miles, pastor of the Baptist church, and inquired, 'Do 
you recollect that a subscription of $1,000 for the Sunday 
School work was given in response to Mr. Smiih^s recent 
lecture and appeal?' 'I recollect it ver}^ well,' said Mr. 
Miles, and the stranger continued: 'Can you convey the 
funds to Mr. Smith without trouble?' Mr. Miles assured 
him that it could be done without the least trouble. *Then,' 
said the unknown stranger, 'I will pa)^ the amount, to you 
instead of depositing it at the bank,' and he handed him a 
purse of gold containing a thousand dollars in fifty pieces 
of twenty dollars each. In the excitement of the moment 
the stranger passed from sight, and from that day search 
was made in vain for the generous donor." 

The Iowa Board of State Missions in connection with the 
State Convention was organized in 1855. Rev. Elihu Gunn, 
the corresponding secretary, thus describes the field as it 
was then. "The state of Iowa is at present filling up by 
an immigration altogether unexampled in the history of 
our country. It is computed by those best qualified to 


judg-e that not less than two hundred thousand people have 
found homes within the ample borders of our state within 
the last two years." "The great thoroughfares of travel 
along the line of the lakes uniting the Atlantic cities with 
the Mississippi river, have been choked with emigrants 
from all the eastern and middle states." "Kvery point of 
transit across the Mississippi has been crowded with the 
canvas-covered wagons of the hardy pioneers from other 
western states." "Whole townships and counties have 
been taken up and settled as by magic. Tracts of country, 
scores and even hundreds of miles in extent, wliere but two 
years ago the wild Indians disputed the possession, only 
with the prairie wolf and the elk, are now dotted all over 
with the rude cabins of the settlers." 

Into such a scene of activit3^ our missionary fathers en- 
tered with a vim and vigor for eternal interests commen- 
surate with the zeal and zest for perishing things, that 
was all about them. It is to be noted however, that Rev. 
I M. Seay, the first missionary of the society, received but 
$75.00 for his first year's work. 

But despise not the day of small things. With the ap- 
pointment of Rev. J. Y. Aitchison to the secretaryship in 
the following 3'ear, practical methods were put into opera- 
tion and $2,087 20 was raised and expended in direct mis- 
sionary work throughout the state. It is with no compla- 
cency that we compare this courageous and hopeful doing 
with our statistics of the past year. We are giving at 
present but S8,000 in round numbers and this with a state 
population many times as large as in 1855, and a Baptist 
constituency at the present time of 40,000 or more. This 
ill proportion in contributions is not because of lessened 
requirement; the need is greater than ever before. Multi- 
tudes of growing- cities and communities are without Bap- 
tist preaching, and many of them without evang-elical ser- 
vices of any kind. Several evangelists might profitably be 
employed in each of the four sections of the state, but the 
money is lacking, and the fields wait in vain. 

Neither is this lack of adequate funds because of a dearth 
of resources in the state. We are a rich and prosperous 


coniinonwealtli Statistics show that Iowa stands well to 
the front, if not altog-ether foremost, in the earning^s and 
saving-s of its populace, and the recent cry of drouth and 
calamity has been proven wholly gratuitous and ungra- 
cious, in view of the large returns that are ours in these 
later months from the fertile fields and rich orchards, not 
to speak of the thrifty markets of the state. The lines 
have fallen to us in pleasant places, and we are affluent 
and well-to-do as compared with our brethren of some 
other states and territories. Instead of basely and falselj' 
repining over fancied or feigned poverty, we should rejoice 
in present blessing-s and respond this year to mission ap- 
peal with a thank offering that should bear some due re- 
lation to the kind gifts that have been bountifully show- 
ered upon us from the skies. "Freel3' ye have received, 
freely give." So may we respect the fathers and prove 
that their spirit of courage and self-sacrifice has not per- 
ished from the earth. 

Looking back at the consecrated labors of these worthies, 
what shall we say? It is piety that we lack, my brethren, 
down-rig-ht piety, and devotion to the higher interests of 
the soul. Our very prosperity has drawn our thoughts 
away from spiritual things and made us, for the most part, 
to turn our accumulations straight back into other chan- 
nels of money-getting instead of investing, as once we 
were prompt to do, in the enterprise of soul winning and 
the interests of the kingdom. Let us beware lest God send 
us judgment of genuine famine and pestilence in the land 
to remind us of our dependence upon Him and to teach us 
to be humble and thankful toward Him from whom all 
blessings flow. 

In conclusion, if we would keep in mind the stirring- 
events of the past and honor the noble veterans of the 
cross, who labored and wrought in the days of small 
things — 

We shall maintain the cause to which they gave so un- 
grudging-ly in toil and sacrifice— 

We shall endeavor in our day and generation with due 


gifts and devotion to finish the work which they began 
and passed on to us — 

We shall seek, in a like humble and heroic spirit, in the 
times that now are, to love and serve the Christ to whom 
they gave in lavish unstintedness, life and loyalty. So 
shall we remember the fathers that are gone and rightly 
aid the generations yet to come. 

Syracuse, New York, 
February 16, 1894. 
Dear Brother Charles: 

I duly received your Book of Personal Reminiscences, 
and I most cordially thank you for it. I read it mostly 
through the first day I received it, and I am reading now 
again. It interests me intensely I'll assure you and as I 
read it I could not help thinking that although we are 
brothers yet how little I knew of your life. Your Mission- 
ary years in Iowa and their incidents as related by you, I 
knew nothing of and of course the book is at once a novel 
and a revelation to me. 

And then, it is a most loving and affectionate tribute to 
the memory of sister Frances, concerning whom, from my 
earliest childhood to the day of her death, I heard only 
words of special endearment from all the members of the 

She occupied a most conspicuous place in the tender re- 
gard of Father and Mother and her memory to me is most 
sweet and precious. I am glad to know that you are so 
well and contented, and what a comfort it must be to you 
to think that you have lived a life of Christian iisefullness 
and that your sons are upright, worthy and noble men. 
I wish I had such comforts now to brighten the shady side 
of life. I wish I could see you and the family, but can't 
just yet. 

I am most lovingly your brother, 






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JUL 8 1958